Bed Bugs How Far Can They Travel
What you need to know about bed bugs
‘Educating yourself can be helpful and reassuring,’ says Dr. Harold Harlan
Jump to discuss comments below
Next story in ‘Don’t let the bed bugs bite’ One victim’s bed bug journal
Harold Harlan, who was a career bug expert for the military, is a prominent authority on bed bugs. Below, he answered a few frequently asked questions:
Are bed bug attacks a sign of dirty living conditions or living in older homes/building, or is anybody at risk?
Infestations of common bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are not directly related to sanitation levels. The cleanest living area can have a very large infestation , and improving sanitation alone will not eliminate an established bed bug population. Cluttered conditions can offer the bugs a lot of excellent harborages very near their human blood-meal hosts. Almost anyone is at risk of having an infestation if bed bugs are brought into their home.
Can you get anything serious from a bed bug bite? Are there physical/physiological effects if you are living with bed bugs?
According to scientists, naturally occurring populations (infestations) of common bed bugs have been documented to have at least 28 different kinds of human pathogens in their bodies. However, very careful and detailed studies by both entomologists and medical doctors have never shown that those bed bugs could transmit (infect) even one of those pathogens to humans or lab animals. They simply have not been shown to transmit any human disease known so far.
Do Bed Bugs Travel on People?
Believe it or not, bed bugs can travel via human hosts. (Photo: Justin Sullivan/Getty Images News/Getty Images )
They’re creepy, they’re crawly and they’re often quite difficult to spot. Bed bugs – blood-sucking, tiny parasites that dine on human and animal hosts – have become a concern worldwide due to their stealthy ways of getting around. Unfortunately, the little critters are more mobile than we would like to think.
Bed Bug Bites and Basics
Bed bugs – named for one of their favorite hangouts – tend to be found in linens, between cracks in mattresses and even in cracks and crevices in the floor. They leech off their human or animal hosts, with bed bug bites leaving scabby trails of rashes and marks across the skin. Because they are mostly active at night, it can take awhile for a person to notice that his home or hotel room has bed bugs.
How Bed Bugs Spread
Not everyone is aware that bed bugs can be spread via humans: if a person goes to a hotel room that has bed bugs, and the bed bugs hide out on the person or on the person’s luggage, the bed bugs can be spread to a new location. Because of this, no house is safe from a bed bug infestation. Bed bugs can spread from house to house, living in even the cleanest conditions; bed bugs are not a sign that a person’s home is dirty or unkempt.
Looking for Bed Bug Evidence
If you suspect that your home has been hit by bed bugs, look for the following telltale signs: small scabs or rashes in a line-like pattern on your skin, small fecal droppings or small blood smears on your sheets. The bed-bug bites will most likely be across your face, arms, or legs – the areas that are not covered by your pajamas as you sleep. Remember, though, that not all people will develop a rash if being bitten. You’ll also want to check for bugs in your mattress and in your luggage by closely inspecting them.
Eradicating Bed Bugs for Good
Though a variety of sprays and ointments are out there marketed as beg-bug killers, the truth is that many of these products do not work. You can attempt to rid yourself of these pests by vacuuming every inch of your apartment and by putting your linens in a dryer set on the highest setting. While it’s rare to find bed bugs on the clothes you’re wearing – they tend to fall off once you start moving – you should still wash any potentially contaminated clothing as well. A severe infestation will require the attention of a licensed exterminator; it can often take more than one visit from the exterminator to ensure that the bed bugs are really gone.
Leaf Group is a USA TODAY content partner providing general travel information. Its content is produced independently of USA TODAY.
Bed Bugs FAQs
What are bed bugs?
Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are small, flat, parasitic insects that feed solely on the blood of people and animals while they sleep. Bed bugs are reddish-brown in color, wingless, range from 1mm to 7mm (roughly the size of Lincoln’s head on a penny), and can live several months without a blood meal.
Where are bed bugs found?
Bed bugs are found across the globe from North and South America, to Africa, Asia and Europe. Although the presence of bed bugs has traditionally been seen as a problem in developing countries, it has recently been spreading rapidly in parts of the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and other parts of Europe. Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not determined by the cleanliness of the living conditions where they are found.
Bed bug infestations usually occur around or near the areas where people sleep. These areas include apartments, shelters, rooming houses, hotels, cruise ships, buses, trains, and dorm rooms. They hide during the day in places such as seams of mattresses, box springs, bed frames, headboards, dresser tables, inside cracks or crevices, behind wallpaper, or any other clutter or objects around a bed. Bed bugs have been shown to be able to travel over 100 feet in a night but tend to live within 8 feet of where people sleep.
Do bed bugs spread disease?
Bed bugs are not known to spread disease. Bed bugs can be an annoyance because their presence may cause itching and loss of sleep. Sometimes the itching can lead to excessive scratching that can sometimes increase the chance of a secondary skin infection.
What health risks do bed bugs pose?
A bed bug bite affects each person differently. Bite responses can range from an absence of any physical signs of the bite, to a small bite mark, to a serious allergic reaction. Bed bugs are not considered to be dangerous; however, an allergic reaction to several bites may need medical attention.
What are the signs and symptoms of a bed bug infestation?
One of the easiest ways to identify a bed bug infestation is by the tell-tale bite marks on the face, neck, arms, hands, or any other body parts while sleeping. However, these bite marks may take as long as 14 days to develop in some people so it is important to look for other clues when determining if bed bugs have infested an area. These signs include:
- the bed bugs’ exoskeletons after molting,
- bed bugs in the fold of mattresses and sheets,
- rusty–colored blood spots due to their blood-filled fecal material that they excrete on the mattress or nearby furniture, and
- a sweet musty odor.
How do I know if I’ve been bitten by a bed bug?
It is hard to tell if you’ve been bitten by a bed bug unless you find bed bugs or signs of infestation. When bed bugs bite, they inject an anesthetic and an anticoagulant that prevents a person from realizing they are being bitten. Most people do not realize they have been bitten until bite marks appear anywhere from one to several days after the initial bite. The bite marks are similar to that of a mosquito or a flea — a slightly swollen and red area that may itch and be irritating. The bite marks may be random or appear in a straight line. Other symptoms of bed bug bites include insomnia, anxiety, and skin problems that arise from profuse scratching of the bites.
Because bed bug bites affect everyone differently, some people may have no reaction and will not develop bite marks or any other visible signs of being bitten. Other people may be allergic to the bed bugs and can react adversely to the bites. These allergic symptoms can include enlarged bite marks, painful swellings at the bite site, and, on rare occasions, anaphylaxis.
How did I get bed bugs?
Bed bugs are experts at hiding. Their slim flat bodies allow them to fit into the smallest of spaces and stay there for long periods of time, even without a blood meal. Bed bugs are usually transported from place to place as people travel. The bed bugs travel in the seams and folds of luggage, overnight bags, folded clothes, bedding, furniture, and anywhere else where they can hide. Most people do not realize they are transporting stow-away bed bugs as they travel from location to location, infecting areas as they travel.
Who is at risk for getting bed bugs?
Everyone is at risk for getting bed bugs when visiting an infected area. However, anyone who travels frequently and shares living and sleeping quarters where other people have previously slept has a higher risk of being bitten and or spreading a bed bug infestation.
How are bed bugs treated and prevented?
Bed bug bites usually do not pose a serious medical threat. The best way to treat a bite is to avoid scratching the area and apply antiseptic creams or lotions and take an antihistamine. Bed bug infestations are commonly treated by insecticide spraying. If you suspect that you have an infestation, contact your landlord or professional pest control company that is experienced with treating bed bugs. The best way to prevent bed bugs is regular inspection for the signs of an infestation.
This information is not meant to be used for self-diagnosis or as a substitute for consultation with a health care provider. If you have any questions about the parasites described above or think that you may have a parasitic infection, consult a health care provider.
Bed Bugs – How far do bed bugs travel?
February 15, 2017
Bed bugs do not hop, skip or jump. They don’t have wings so they cannot fly. However, bed bugs are really good at crawling and hitching rides on clothing, furniture and other items. In fact, that’s one way a bed bug infestation begins. One female bed bug is introduced and deposits eggs in the environment can result in having 400-600 offspring in a few months.
Bed bugs are lazy; they don’t like to move around once they have found an environment that provides all the things that bed bugs need; food, harborage (shelter) and a comfortable temperature range.
Bed bugs feed exclusively on blood. They need a host for feeding. Harborages are any crack or crevice that a bed bug can crawl into. In terms of temperature, bed bugs do very well at temperatures humans feel comfortable; typically, temperatures between 50 and 90 degrees F. As temperatures climb above 90 degrees F., bed bugs become stressed. In fact, at 119 degrees F. bed bugs begin to die-off. Bed bugs are much more tolerant to lower temperatures. Bed bugs have been found outdoors where the temperatures have dropped below 32 degrees F and they appear to be dead. When carried indoors, however, they warm-up and return to normal function.
Bed bugs will stay in their harborages if they have access to a host (blood meal) every 4-5 days and the environment is at room temperature; 55-78 degrees F. Clearly, there are situations that cause bed bugs to move such as changes in available harborage sites, access to a host and temperature fluctuations.
Research has indicated bed bugs will travel from their harborage site to a host and back again. The distance traveled in a 24 hour period may be as much as 40 to 50 feet or more back and forth from the host to harborage.
If the environmental requirements change, the bed bug will try to adapt and stay put. However, bed bugs will migrate from room to room and from apartment to apartment to find a suitable environment.
When a bed bug is first introduced into a home, it may crawl around for days until it locates the right “circumstances”. Bed bugs prefer to hide close to where they feed, but if necessary will crawl several feet to obtain a meal. Initially the bugs tend to be situated around sleeping areas, i.e., beds, couches and recliners. If infestations are allowed to persist, they also may disperse to other locations within the dwelling making elimination more difficult.
Do you need help with bed bugs?Arrow Exterminating Company offers fast and effective bed bug removal services in Long Island, NYC and the 5 Boroughs. Call 516-593-7770 now to speak with our pest experts.
Oak Hill Gardens
Do Bed Bugs Live Outside? Where and How Long Can They Survive Outdoors?
We can hear you wondering:“How are bed bugs a gardening issue?”
Well, they are not, with respect to being a threat to your beautiful orchids or clematis. But if you know that these blood-sucking pests can attack you while doing a bit of weeding or planting, then, the problem suddenly becomes relevant to every keen green-fingered enthusiast out there. Not to mention the youngins with sensitive skin – your kids with an avid interest in gardening or a habit of just playing outdoors at every opportunity.
So, can bed bugs live outside the house?
Yes, quite worryingly, they can.
This post will answer the question and will explore how bed bugs survive outside and where. We’ll also explain why you should stay vigilant, even if your home interior is presently free of these minute biting pests.
Last but not least, you’ll learn how to prevent them from infesting both the outside and inside of your property.
How do “indoor” bed bugs come to live out in your garden?
Bed bugs won’t settle outdoors by choice. They are either unknowingly brought or driven outside.
The insects are renowned for their hitchhiking skills, as they can easily attach themselves to bags, clothes and shoes and this way, travel any distance. On that note, you can bring bed bugs to your property by buying second-hand garden furniture, cushions, throw-overs for your outside sofa or fluffy toys.
“A pest control treatment indoors can drive away a few survivors that run for dear life but “decide” to stay close to the inhabited building – their valuable former abode.”commented Alexander Crawley, an entomology consultant at Fantastic Pest Control in Australia, “Those will sneak and hide in cracks of wooden furniture, outdoor structures, wood piles, upholstered outdoor furnishings, trampolines and more.” he adds.
How far can bed bugs travel outside?
Well, bed bugs can travel on foot, be it on grass or hard surfaces, which are not too smooth. Considering their tiny size (about 4mm), they can cover a relatively big distance of up to 20 feet per day (or night). So can bed bugs travel through grass house to house? Yes, they can.
The pests have the ability to sense the release of carbon dioxide from their potential hosts (when breathing), as well as their heat. This means that they may also drop by and visit you, after leaving a neighboring property for whatever reason, like running away from an insecticidal treatment, getting hungry in a recently abandoned house or looking for additional food sources, due to bed-bug overcrowding and competition or in other words – due to the expansion of their existing colony.
Sometimes, even the use of regular gardening tools like a lawn mower, a leaf rake or even gardening boots could help them cut the distance and infest a new area.
Why do bed bugs try everything to move inside your home?
Despite that this article has a focus on bed bugs living outdoors, it’s important to know that sooner or later, they’ll attempt to relocate indoors, to live with you.
Why? They need blood to survive.
The insects don’t feed onanything else. Moreover, it’s human blood that they are genetically programmed to thrive on and reproduce, with some exceptions. Some types of bed bugs live by feeding on bats.
Also, if starving and as a last resort, the human-insect pests may settle for an emergency feed, sourced from pets, chickens or other domesticated animals.
So, the vermin will be always attracted to inhabited properties and live, breed and grow their colony near people. Hence, their name, as well. After all, what better opportunity to feed than when their host is resting nonchalantly in bed, sound asleep.
Okay, but where do bed bugs hide outside?
Okay, then. Bed bugs will not hide in a flower patch or directly in the grass of your lawn, but they can colonize temporarily the reclaimed or repurposed wooden beams of your raised vegetable bed, for instance.
Also, it’s not unheard of to spot a family of bed bugs and their eggs in crevices of second-hand garden planters, made from wood, wicker, rattan or even plastic that imitates the structure of the last two. If you want to avoid uninvited guests, you may want to buy your gardening pieces, like planters, new.
As discussed earlier in the post, bed bugs will also happily wait outdoors for better times to come in the following:
Outdoor buildings- This includes wooden exterior and interior structural fixtures, cracks, holes and crevices in those, as well as infested items in a said outdoor building, which are made or part-made of fabric.
Patio furniture- Bed bugs will snuggle in wooden, wicker, rattan furniture, upholstered furniture, cushions, furnishing covers and blankets.
Your car, camper van- The pests may try to escape the cold by moving into any type of vehicle, parked on your property (you may also bring bed bugs to your property via your travels by car).
Garden structures and items- We could be talking, here, about pergolas, wooden trellises and frames, etc.
Firewood pile- Or the insects could be in a temporary hideout in wooden building material, stacked near your house.
General clutter- Again, be it inside an outdoor building or storage unit, or outside, somewhere you keep disused equipment under a cover, bed bugs will make use of any old electronic appliance (TVs, radios, etc.) or even old gardening equipment, like a broken lawn mower.
How long can bed bugs make it, if living outdoors?
How long bed bugs can live outside your house will depend on several factors. Weather conditions, the presence/absence of the pests’ natural predators, as well as the duration of food deprivation will play a crucial role.
On a more lighthearted note, their fate depends on how long bed bugs have remained undetected. If you spot them on your garden sofa, you’ll do something about it, right?
But let’s see what exactly kills bed bugs, outside a timely insecticidal treatment, and how long it would take for them to die outdoors.
Here is the right place to note that the vermin-insects possess superior survival skills.
The enemies of bed bugs
Bed bugs do have some natural predators, which will eat them without a blink. Masked hunters, Pharaoh ants, common cockroaches, some lizards and spiders will all gladly devour any bed bugs that cross their path.
Still, this doesn’t mean that predators are a reliable bed bug control solution, because it’s unlikely that they can eliminate an entire outdoor colony of vampire-insects.
The biting insects are able to reach adulthood only if they regularly eat blood. Also, female bed bugs won’t be able to lay eggs if blood is not available.
However, bed bugs can go on without food for a very long time. We’re talking months, up to 5 months in warm weather conditions. If temperatures are low, though, an adult bed bug will self-regulate its own body temperature in sync with that outside. The result is that the insect goes into a state, where the lack of food stops being an issue, for a long while at least.
In lab conditions, it’s been determined that some bed bugs can survive for over a year without a single blood meal. Nymphs however, will die out much sooner, of course.
Heat and cold
With respect to heat, bed bugs won’t survive a professional heat treatment. They will struggle with temperatures above 120° Fahrenheit (49°C). Naturally, such heat cannot happen outside, or at least in most places across the world. So, the scorching summer sun cannot drive bed bugs to extinction, with some exceptions, maybe – in the desert.
If you’re curious as to what temperature can kill bed bugs, check out this video.
Cold weather will also pose no huge risk to bed bug survival, unless the temperature plummets under 1° – 0°F (-18°C).
As we’ve explained above, their body temperature also drops so that they can preserve their energy and survive for a significant length of time.
How do you get rid of bed bugs?
You can take measures to prevent bed bugs from hanging in and around your property. Here’s how.
It’s harder to treat contaminated outdoor surfaces against bed bugs with success unless you apply a professional pest control method in a repeated manner, at an interval of 2-4 weeks.
For instance, a heat treatment will prove reliable, if applied in storage units, outdoor buildings and vehicles.
Vacuuming garden furniture and applying an insecticidal product will also reduce the population of bed bugs.
Additionally, you can seal wooden and rattan furnishings with a strong oil-based varnish after the treatment.
Most importantly, you can learn from our tips below how to minimize the risk of getting a bed bugs problem in the first place or if your property has suffered an infestation in the past:
Keep watch and stay vigilant;
If you spot bites on your skin, consider that it could be bed bugs;
Wash clothes, bags straight away after returning from a trip;
Inspect and clean the interior of your car (motor home) on a regular basis;
Keep clutter to a minimum in outdoor buildings and storage rooms inside your home;
Inspect second-hand furniture, even when bought from a trusted thrift store, or best try to avoid purchasing used items that can be easily infested;
Maintain a high level of cleanliness in your property;
Have regular bed bugs inspections by hiring a professional;
Treat your home now and again against the biting insects as a preventative measure;
Keep good relations with your neighbors – say, the house next door has bed bugs – your neighbor should ideally warn you if their property has been recently treated against the pests.
Tip: Never throw out contaminated furniture without treating it, first. Otherwise, this could spread the problem elsewhere and drive the bed bugs to someone else’s garden.