How Bed Bug Form
How to Find Bed Bugs
If you have a bed bug infestation, it is best to find it early, before the infestation becomes established or spreads. Treating a minor infestation, while an inconvenience, is far less costly and easier than treating the same infestation after it becomes more widespread.
However, low-level infestations are also much more challenging to find and correctly identify. Other insects, such as carpet beetles, can be easily mistaken for bed bugs. If you misidentify a bed bug infestation, it gives the bugs more time to spread to other areas of the house or hitchhike a ride to someone else’s house to start a new infestation. Learn about identifying bed bugs.
Bites on the skin are a poor indicator of a bed bug infestation. Bed bug bites can look like bites from other insects (such as mosquitoes or chiggers), rashes (such as eczema or fungal infections), or even hives. Some people do not react to bed bug bites at all.
Looking for Signs of Bed Bugs
A more accurate way to identify a possible infestation is to look for physical signs of bed bugs. When cleaning, changing bedding, or staying away from home, look for:
- Rusty or reddish stains on bed sheets or mattresses caused by bed bugs being crushed.
- Dark spots (about this size: •), which are bed bug excrement and may bleed on the fabric like a marker would.
- Eggs and eggshells, which are tiny (about 1mm) and pale yellow skins that nymphs shed as they grow larger.
- Live bed bugs.
Where Bed Bugs Hide
When not feeding, bed bugs hide in a variety of places. Around the bed, they can be found near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring, and in cracks on the bed frame and headboard.
If the room is heavily infested, you may find bed bugs:
- In the seams of chairs and couches, between cushions, in the folds of curtains.
- In drawer joints.
- In electrical receptacles and appliances.
- Under loose wall paper and wall hangings.
- At the junction where the wall and the ceiling meet.
- Even in the head of a screw.
How do bedbugs form ?
July 12, 2009 7:48PM
Bedbug form after bedbug nymphs hatch out of eggs laid by female
bedbugs. Bedbug eggs which look like a grain of salt ;aid on hard
surfaces stick to the surface and so may be unwittingly brought
into a home in second hand beds or furniture bought or in clothing.
When the eggs hatch the nymph is able to detect the breath of any
person sleeping. It will be attracted to the sauce of that breath,
that is to the bed in which somebody is asleep. It will climb up to
that bed and find the sleeping person and have its first meal by
sipping the blood of the person asleep in that bed After its meal
it will find a hiding place close to the sleeper, which may be in
the bed such as in a fold or crevice in the mattress or somewhere
nearby such as in furniture near the bed. It will then come out
again for more meals over next few weeks and after each meal it
sheds its skin and grows om size. After five skin shedding after
meals it will have become an adult bedbug and ot can then breed to
create more bedbug so in time females lay more eggs in or near that
bed so when they hatch causing a bedbug infestation of that
person’s bed. That is how they form in beds.
Bed bugs are small insects that feed mainly on human blood. Bed bug infestations are increasingly common in New York City. Bed bugs can enter homes by latching onto used furniture, luggage and clothing, and by traveling along connecting pipes and wiring. Left untreated, bed bugs can spread quickly.
Preventing and Getting Rid of Bed Bug Infestations
Property owners are required to address bed bug infestations promptly. The surest strategies to keep bed bugs from spreading are prevention, early detection, and rapid treatment. To learn more, see the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Preventing and Getting Rid of Bedbugs Safely guide.
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Tenants should report the presence of bed bugs to the property owner. If the property owner does not address the condition, file a complaint online or call 311.
When calling 311 to make a bed bug complaint, the caller may be asked by the 311 operator about whether it would be acceptable for HPD to bring a dog trained to sniff out bed bugs to participate in an inspection (note that even if requested, the dog may not accompany an Inspector). Whether or not a dog is present during an inspection, an HPD Inspector will conduct a visual inspection. Violations will be issued if the Inspector is able to visually confirm the presence of live bed bugs.
Listen to this podcast to learn more about bed bug-sniffing dogs and when HPD brings them into homes to investigate a possible bed bug infestation in this podcast.
Property Owner Requirements
The Housing Maintenance Code and Health Code both require that property owners address infestations promptly.
The surest strategies to keep bed bugs from spreading are prevention, early detection, and rapid treatment. To learn more, see the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) Preventing and Getting Rid of Bedbugs Safely guide.
Bed bug infestations usually require the services of well-trained, licensed pest management professionals, also called exterminators. New York State law requires that property owners hire only pest control professionals licensed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) to treat apartments for bed bugs. The pest control professional should perform an inspection to confirm the presence of bed bugs and to eliminate bed bugs, if necessary. Property owners are expected to make follow-up visits to ensure that there are no signs of a bed bug infestation.
Property owners of rental residential properties are now required to file a Bed Bug Annual Report. See the Bed Bug Annual Report Requirement section of this webpage for the additional requirements. Once the Bed Bug Annual Report has been filed, the property owner is required to either provide the filing receipt to each tenant (upon commencement of a new lease and with each lease renewal) OR post the filing receipt in a prominent location in the building. In addition, the property owner must either distribute to each tenant or post the DOHMH Preventing and Getting Rid of Bedbugs Safely guide, which provides information on the prevention, detection, and removal of bedbugs.
Bed Bug Annual Report Requirement
Local Law 69 of 2017 requires that all multiple dwelling property owners must attempt to obtain the bed bug infestation history from the tenant or unit owner, including whether eradication measures were employed for a bedbug infestation.
Complete your Annual Bed Bug Report. Pursuant to the law, HPD will make the submitted information publicly available through HPDONLINE.
The online application will only allow validly registered property owners and managing agents of multiple dwellings to disclose bedbug infestation history. A building’s property registration must be current. If you have not registered your property, please do so by visiting Property Registration.
Property owners will be required to file annually between December 1 and December 31 for the previous year from November 1 through October 31.
Property owners will be required to report the following information:
- The number of dwelling units;
- The number of dwelling units, as reported or otherwise known to the owner, than had a bedbug infestation during the previous year;
- The number of dwelling units, as reported or otherwise known to the owner, in which eradication measure were employed during the previous year for a bedbug infestation;
- The number of dwelling units reported in number 3 that had a bedbug infestation after such eradication measure were employed in such units.
When submitting, the owner will certify that either:
- A copy of the most electronic form will be distributed to each tenant of the building upon each lease renewal or the commencement of a new lease issued; or
- A copy of such form will be posted in a prominent location within the building within 60 days of the filing and that the owner will maintain a record that a copy of such form was prominently posted within 60 days of the filing of the information with HPD.
Once the Bed Bug Annual Report has been filed, the property owner is required to either provide the filing receipt to each tenant (upon commencement of a new lease and with each lease renewal) OR post the filing receipt in a prominent location in the building. In addition, the property owner must either distribute to each tenant or post the DOHMH Preventing and Getting Rid of Bedbugs Safely guide, which provides information on the prevention, detection, and removal of bedbugs.
If you do not have access to a computer or email, you can file a report using this form. Please follow all instructions carefully.
Please note that New York State law requires property owners to disclose bedbug infestation history dating back one year to new tenants through the Bedbug Disclosure Form. For more information, visit the NYS Homes and Community Renewal website.
Tenants should report the presence of bed bugs to the property owner. If the property owner does not address the condition, file a complaint online or call 311.
HPD provides a special service for the inspection of bedbugs: HPD’s Canine Unit. The beagles are available to assist a team of Code Enforcement Inspectors who have been trained to work with them. The Canine Unit will respond to bedbug complaints where the 311 operator has confirmed that the tenant would like to have the inspection performed by a dog; although not every such complaint can be inspected by the Canine Unit. The dogs were trained at an accredited facility to alert by sitting when they detect live bedbugs or viable eggs. The findings are confirmed by visual inspection before a violation is issued.
If the HPD inspector finds bedbugs, the property owner is issued an HPD Notice of Violation (NOV) ordering that the condition be addressed. When a NOV is issued by HPD, the property owner also receives a DOHMH Order of the Commissioner. The Commissioner’s order provides property owners more detail on the requirements for addressing bedbugs, including:
- Inspect the apartment(s) cited for bedbugs.
- If you find a bedbug infestation in the apartment(s), inspect all units adjacent to, above and below the infested units, as well as all common areas; and retain the services of a pest management professional certified and registered by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation to take all measures necessary to remove bedbug infestation where found.
- Keep a record of all actions taken in compliance with the Order.
Certification of HPD’s NOV is the only required notification back to the City that the condition has been corrected as instructed. There is no response directly to the DOHMH. The HPD Certification of Correction requires a sworn statement that the above corrective actions have been taken, in compliance with the DOHMH Commissioner’s Order.
For information about completing your certification documents for HPD, you can contact your Borough Service Center or certify online using eCertification.
Bed Bug Lease Addendum Template
Abedbug lease addendumis a form that informs a tenant that there is not a bed bug infestation on the premises of a dwelling. Due to the difficulty in exterminating this type of bug, the states of Arizona, California, and Maine have made it a requirement that the landlord has to provide a history of any bed bug infestation. The only full-proof way the tenant can ensure that bed bugs do not exist on the property is to have an exterminator visit the property and conduct any necessary tests.
While there is no addendum form available for Arizona landlords, they should still include with any lease a disclosure informing the tenant of all previous bed bug infestation information. Arizona landlords are required by law to provide educational material about the insect to new and existing tenants in multi-housing families; single-family residences are exempt from this requirement. Furthermore, an Arizona landlord may not knowingly lease an apartment with an infestation of bed bugs.
How to Write (Arizona)
1 – Obtain A Copy Of The Arizona Bed Bug Lease Addendum
You may view and save a copy of this information packet by clicking this link then saving it to your machine: Arizona Bed Bug Lease Addendum.
2 – Provide A Copy To Each Signature Party
Once you have saved this file to your machine, open it. You will need to print it then attach it to the lease. Make sure to print enough copies so that each signed Lease Agreement being dispensed has its own pamphlet. Allow ample time for each Signature Party (Owner/Landlord/Agent and Tenant) to review the information on this attachment thoroughly before signing the attached Lease Agreement.
How to Write (California)
1 – Gain A Copy Of This Template To Provide A Bedbug Addendum
The paperwork on this page can be downloaded through the link here: California Bed Bug Lease Addendum. You may download any file version you wish at your discretion, then open it to fill in the information relevant to the
2 – The Parties And The Concerned Rental Unit SHould Be Identified
The paragraph opening this document will seek to positively identify the Owner, Landlord, or Agent and the Tenant. It will also seek to attach each of these entities to the Rental Property. Start by recording the Execution Date of the Lease Agreement this paperwork will be attached to on the blank space after the words “…Part Of The Rental Agreement Dated.”The next blank line in this paragraph requires the Full Name of the Owner, Landlord, or Agent supplied to the second blank line.Supply the Tenant or Resident’s Full Name to the third blank space.The next few spaces following the terms “…For The Premises Located At,” “Unit Number,” and “City Of” to present the Full Street Address where the Rental Property being leased can be physically found.
3 – The Resident Must Verify This Document By Initialing It
The next two bullet statements will need to be initialed by each Tenant or Resident that has signed the lease. These statements will verify that no bedbugs have been found during the Tenant’s inspection of the Premises and Tenant Possessions. Each Tenant/Resident must initial one of the blank lines labeled “Resident Initials.” Three such areas have been presented however if there are more than three Tenants make sure they initial this section as well.
4 – The Parties Involved With This Addendum Must Sign This Document
The end of this document will contain the statement beginning with the words “By Signing Below…” Here, each Resident and the Owner, Landlord, or Agent must furnish a Dated Signature after reading this document. Two blank lines labeled “Resident” have been presented so the Tenant or Resident may supply this required signature. After signing his or her Name, each Tenant or Resident will also need to enter the “Date” when he or she signs it. If there are more than two Tenants on this lease you may use a compatible program to add more Signature Lines or attach a clearly labeled document with the rest of the Tenant Signature.Once all the Tenants have signed this document, it should be surrendered to the Landlord, Owner, or Agent. He or she must sign the blank space labeled “Owner/Agent” then fill in the “Date” this signature was produced.
How to Write (Maine)
1 – Download And Fill Out This Template To Supply A Bedbug Disclosure In Maine
The Disclosure Template can be opened then saved to your computer by clicking this link: Maine Bedbug Infestation Disclosure. If you have an editing program compatible with this file version, you may use it to enter information directly onscreen Otherwise you may fill out this form manually so long as it is legible and in blue or black ink.
2 – Several Facts Relevant To This Disclosure Must Be Set
The first few blank lines of this template will require some specific information that should be easily located on the lease. Make sure to transcribe this information so that it is identical to that reported on the lease this document will accompany. Fill in the Landlord’s Full Name in the first blank space.The second blank line, labeled “Tenant’s Name,” must have the Name of the Tenant displayed on it.Finally, present the Street Address of the leased property on the two blank lines after the words “Address Of Rental Unit.” This should be where the leased unit can be physically accessed.
3 – Some Tenant Information Must Be Presented
This disclosure will serve to document the lack of any bedbug infestations in the leased unit and adjacent units. In addition, it will serve as proof that the Tenant has not had or dealt with an infestation in his or her last residence in the last 12 months. Use the blank lines after the phrase “…All Places Where Tenant Has Resided” to record the Physical Address of each place the Tenant has lived in the past 12 months.
4 – A Signature Verification From The Property Manager And Tenant Is Required
The Property Manager (or Landlord) must supply the Date he or she is signing this document on the blank line labeled “Date.” Then, he or she must sign the blank line labeled “Property Manager/Landlord” to show that the contents of this document are true.Each Tenant signing the lease agreement must also read and sign this form. First, he or she must locate the Tenant Signature area below the Landlord’s Signature then report the Date he or she will sign this paperwork. Once this Date has been supplied, the Tenant must sign his or her Name on the line labeled “Tenant.” Enough space for two tenants has been supplied here however if there are more than two Signature Tenants on the list each one will have to sign this document. This can either be done on a labeled attachment or by simply adding an extra line on this form for the additional Tenant(s) to Date and Sign.
How to Write (New York City)
1 – The New York Bedbug Disclosure Is Accessible Here
The required disclosure notice should be saved to your machine by clicking here: New York City Bed Bug Lease Addendum. When you are ready to fill it out, open it on your machine and simply enter the information requested on screen or, if you do not have a compatible editing program, you may print this file then fill it out on paper.
2 – Identify Several Facts Regarding The Lease Agreement
Locate the line labeled “Name Of Tenant(s)” then present the Full Name of each Tenant who has signed the Lease.The Street Address of the leased property should be furnished to the line “Subject Premises.” If this property has a Unit or Apartment Number, supply this to the blank line “Apt. #.”The Lease Date should be produced on the blank space labeled “Date Of Vacancy Lease.”
3 – The Landlord Must Disclose The Bedbug Status Of The Premises
Next, at least one of the checkbox statements in the “Bedbug Infestation History.” Read through each statement on this list and mark the checkbox to the left of any sentence that is accurate. If it requires more information, you must supply it. If “There Is No History Of Any Bedbug Infestation” in any part of the building where the rental property is located then mark the first checkbox.Mark the second checkbox if there has been a Bedbug Infestation in the building and report what floor or floors this infestation was found on the blank line provided. This statement should only be marked if this is the case and “Eradication Measures” have been taken.The third check box statement should be marked if a Bedbug Infestation has been found in the building and no effort to eradicate the infestation has been taken. If this statement has been selected then report the Floor where this infestation was found on the blank line preceding the word “Floor(s)…”If the rental has had a Bedbug Infestation in the past year and measures to exterminate the infestation have been taken, this must be disclosed to the Tenant by marking the fourth check box.In the event, the Rental Unit has had a Bedbug Infestation in the past year and no attempt of extermination has been taken then mark the fifth check box.If information regarding a Bedbug Infestation must be provided to the Tenant and has not been described in the previous statements, then mark the “Other” check box then, present a report with this information on the blank line provided.
4 – The Tenant And Landlord Must Each Present A Signature To Authenticate This Document
This disclosure must be signed by the Tenant and Owner/Agent so that it may be verified as delivered and its contents accurate. Each Tenant should sign the “Signature Of Tenant(s)” then fill in the Date of his or her Signing on the “Dated” line.The Owner or Agent must also sign this disclosure once it has been completed. He or she should sign the line “Signature Of Owner/Agent” then present the Date of Signature on the “Dated” line.
What causes bed bugs?
When you have a bed bug infestation, after trying to find some remedies for it you just ask this question to yourself:What causes bed bugs?How did they come into your house? Was it my fault to bring them in?
Bed bugs at home
You can simply have a bed bug infestation in 3 places: Your home, your car or your workplace. These are places where you spend more time than others and easily feel the consequences of sharing your habitat with bed bugs.
So, let’s look at the reasons those bring bed bugs into our places.
What causes bed bugs to come in your house?
When there are bed bugs in your house, there are two options around: They were already there, or they just came into your house from anywhere else.
Bed bugs can live for a long time, even for more then a year in some cases, and because of this, they can keep living in an empty house for months or years: bedbugdetected.com/how-long-can-bed-bugs-live-without-feeding
This means that if there were bed bugs in that house before you move there, you already got them without doing anything but moving into that house.
What you must do is to check any house that you will buy or rent before you move there and make sure there are no bed bugs around.
Second way to see bed bugs in your house is to bring them inside by any way. Here are some reasons those bring bed bugs into your house:
- Buying secondhand stuff such as furniture, clothes or other used things
- Buying used books
- Having some bed bugs after a travel and carrying them with you without realizing
- To accommodate a guest who already has bed bugs with him or her
- Having bed bugs in your workplace and carrying them in to your house without realizing
Why do bed bugs come into your home?
You can be curious about why bed bugs prefer to come into your house and what causes them to choose yours.
But you must forget about thinking this! Bed bugs are not picky creatures which have specific criteria about hosting. They just need blood to fed on and every place with human or other food sources are ideal for them.
It’s not important for bed bugs that how clean is your house or how dirty are your clothes. They usually do not move from one place to another, but they are transmitted by human in most cases.
Where do bed bugs come from?
As I told you above, they can come by a friend of you or an old stuff you bought or you can bring bed bugs on you from your office to home.
There is no certain answer to this question. What you must do is to focus on how to get rid of bed bugs instead of where they came from!
What causes bed bugs to come back?
This is another useless question. It’s useless because, the answer is the same as how they came at first time.
If you believe that you got rid of bed bugs permanently and you just saw one after a few months from treatment, there are 2 options:
- You never got rid of them permanently and they just kept hiding around in your house
- You got bed bugs again by any way such as carrying them form your travel or buying used stuff or other reasons
What causes bed bugs to come into your house?There may be several reasons for this. First, you can have one from any public areas or buildings like those below:
- Federal buildings or police stations
- Libraries or theaters
- Travel options like buses, trains, taxi cabs or planes
Secondly you can have bed bugs from anyone in your social environment. You can carry one on you to your house after you visit e friend of you who already has bed bugs in his or her home. Or a friend of you can bring bed bugs together with him to you house when he or she visits you.
One common reason to cause bed bugs is to buy used stuff and bring them inside your house without checking them well for bed bugs.
Especially used furniture, cabinets, carpets, pictures, clothes and books may carry bed bugs with it and you must be careful before placing them into your house.
Remember that there is no certain reason that cause bed bugs. Having bed bugs at home is not about how dirty or messy your house is.
Bed bugs just come to your house with a friend or stuff or a family member and you can’t do anything about this.
Just be careful with used stuff before getting them into your house and check yourself and suitcases after a travel.
You can also check these posts to see how to get rid of bed bugs: