How Bed Bugs Form

US EPA

Bed Bugs

How to Find Bed Bugs

If you have a bed bug infestation, it is best to find it early, before the infestation becomes established or spreads. Treating a minor infestation, while an inconvenience, is far less costly and easier than treating the same infestation after it becomes more widespread.

However, low-level infestations are also much more challenging to find and correctly identify. Other insects, such as carpet beetles, can be easily mistaken for bed bugs. If you misidentify a bed bug infestation, it gives the bugs more time to spread to other areas of the house or hitchhike a ride to someone else’s house to start a new infestation. Learn about identifying bed bugs.

Bites on the skin are a poor indicator of a bed bug infestation. Bed bug bites can look like bites from other insects (such as mosquitoes or chiggers), rashes (such as eczema or fungal infections), or even hives. Some people do not react to bed bug bites at all.

Looking for Signs of Bed Bugs

A more accurate way to identify a possible infestation is to look for physical signs of bed bugs. When cleaning, changing bedding, or staying away from home, look for:

  • Rusty or reddish stains on bed sheets or mattresses caused by bed bugs being crushed.
  • Dark spots (about this size: •), which are bed bug excrement and may bleed on the fabric like a marker would.
  • Eggs and eggshells, which are tiny (about 1mm) and pale yellow skins that nymphs shed as they grow larger.
  • Live bed bugs.

Where Bed Bugs Hide

When not feeding, bed bugs hide in a variety of places. Around the bed, they can be found near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring, and in cracks on the bed frame and headboard.

If the room is heavily infested, you may find bed bugs:

  • In the seams of chairs and couches, between cushions, in the folds of curtains.
  • In drawer joints.
  • In electrical receptacles and appliances.
  • Under loose wall paper and wall hangings.
  • At the junction where the wall and the ceiling meet.
  • Even in the head of a screw.

US EPA

Bed Bugs

Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

Bed bugs are great hitchhikers. They can move from an infested site to a new home by traveling on furniture, bedding, luggage, boxes, and clothing.

Although they typically feed on blood every five to ten days, bed bugs can be quite resilient; they are capable of surviving several months to a year without feeding.

A few simple precautions can help prevent bed bug infestation in your home:

  • Check secondhand furniture, beds, and couches for any signs of bed bug infestation before bringing them home.
  • Use a protective cover that encases mattresses and box springs to eliminate many hiding spots. The light color of the encasement makes bed bugs easier to see. Be sure to purchase a high quality encasement that will resist tearing and check the encasement regularly for holes or a cover that has been pre-treated with pesticide to control bed bugs.
  • Reduce clutter in your home to reduce hiding places for bed bugs.
  • Vacuum frequently to remove any successful hitchhikers.
  • Be vigilant when using shared laundry facilities. Transport items to be washed in plastic bags (if you have an active infestation, use a new bag for the journey home). Remove from dryer directly into bag and fold at home. (A dryer on high heat can kill bed bugs.)
  • If you live in a multi-family home, try to isolate your unit by:
  • Installing door sweeps on the bottom of doors to discourage movement into hallways.
  • Sealing cracks and crevices around baseboards, light sockets, etc., to discourage movement through wall voids.
  • Consider purchasing a portable heating chamber to treat any items that you believe may have bed bugs.
    • Be sure to read and carefully follow the directions if you use one of these units and be aware that they are not regulated by EPA or other federal agencies.
    • More information on controlling bed bugs.
    • Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem.

      Department of Health

      Bed Bugs – What They Are and How to Control Them

      Bed bugs have been around for thousands of years. They feed on blood, but are not known to spread any diseases to humans. Some people can be allergic to their bites. Getting rid of a bed bug infestation is not easy, but there are steps you can take to control the problem. There are also steps you can take to avoid bringing bed bugs home.

      What are bed bugs?

      How can bed bugs get into my home?

      • They can come from other infested areas or from used furniture. They can hitch a ride in luggage, purses, backpacks, or other items placed on soft or upholstered surfaces.
      • They can travel between rooms in multi-unit buildings, such as apartment complexes and hotels.

      How can I avoid bringing bed bugs into my home?

      • When staying in a hotel, place your bag on a suitcase stand rather than on the bed or floor. Keep the rack away from walls or furniture. When returning home, wash the clothes from your trip and put them in a hot dryer.
      • Inspect new and used furniture before bringing it inside. Look in seams, tufts and under cushions.

      How do I know if I have a bed bug problem?

      • You can see the bed bugs themselves, their shed skins, or their droppings in mattress seams and other items in the bedroom.
      • There may also be blood stains on sheets.

      How do I control a bed bug problem in my home?

      It can be done, but it usually requires what is called an "integrated pest management" (IPM) approach. This combines techniques that pose the lowest risk to your health and the environment. Try these strategies:

      • Clean and get rid of clutter, especially in your bedroom.
      • Move your bed away from walls or furniture.
      • Vacuum molding, windows and floors every day. Vacuum sides and seams of mattresses, box springs and furniture. Empty the vacuum or the bag immediately and dispose of outside in a sealed container or bag.
      • Wash sheets, pillow cases, blankets and bed skirts and put them in a hot dryer for at least 30 minutes. Consider using mattress and box spring covers –the kind used for dust mite control–and put duct tape over the zippers.
      • Seal cracks and crevices and any openings where pipes or wires come into the home.

      Should I also try pesticides?

      Pesticides may not be effective and can be dangerous if used improperly. If you decide to use pesticides, follow these rules:

      • Only use pesticides that are registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (look for the U.S. EPA Registration Number on the label) and make sure they are labeled to control bed bugs.
      • Do not apply pesticides directly to your body (there are no repellents registered to control bed bugs that can be used on the human body).
      • Do not use outdoor pesticides indoors.
      • If you decide to hire a pest control company, make sure they have experience with bed bugs. They should follow the steps of IPM, along with any pesticide application. Use a company that is registered and employs licensed applicators. The Department of Environmental Conservation has a list of registered companies.

      It takes time and persistence to get rid of bed bugs, and in some cases, the cooperation of landlords, neighbors and others. It can be physically and emotionally exhausting. It can also be expensive when pest control companies are called in. Just remember – bed bugs are more of a nuisance than a health concern and, with vigilance, you can avoid or deal with infestations.

      See the following for more information on bed bug biology and control measures:

      Photo courtesy of Dr. Harold Harlan, Armed Forces Pest Management Board Image Library

      Bed Bug Infestation

      Bed bugs are flat and small in size, allowing them to hide easily from view during the day when they are not active. They hide in mattresses, bed frames, bedding, furniture, carpets, baseboards and bedroom clutter. They are most commonly found in the seams of mattresses or inside box springs. However, it is not necessary to locate a specimen to identify an infestation. Their excrement leaves brown to black stains on mattresses and linens, and bloodstains may be visible where bed bugs have been accidentally crushed.

      Bed bugs are commonly transported within luggage, allowing them to spread anywhere humans settle. Infestations have become a problem in domestic households, hotels, dormitories and other places of residence. Because of their small size and propensity to hide within mattresses and furniture, controlling a bed bug infestation can prove difficult.

      The presence of only one fertile female bed bug in a friendly environment such as a single or multiple family dwelling is an infestation that is waiting to happen. Since a healthy, blood-fed female bed bug can produce from 200-500 healthy eggs during her lifetime and may lay from 2-5 eggs each day, the likelihood of an infestation of bed bugs is extremely high unless bed bug control efforts by your pest management professional are employed to eliminate the infestation.


      Mattress Infested With Bed Bugs

      Bed Bug Control

      Cimex lectularius L.

      Learn what Bed Bugs look like, and how to detect if you have a Bed Bug Infestation.

      Find out how Bed Bugs infiltrate your home and where they are attracted to.

      Learn about Bed Bug bites. their feces and how they can impact your health.

      Learn how Orkin handles Bed Bugs, homeopathic cures and the cost of Bed Bug extermination services.

      How do bedbugs form ?

      Wiki User
      July 12, 2009 7:48PM

      Bedbug form after bedbug nymphs hatch out of eggs laid by female

      bedbugs. Bedbug eggs which look like a grain of salt ;aid on hard

      surfaces stick to the surface and so may be unwittingly brought

      into a home in second hand beds or furniture bought or in clothing.

      When the eggs hatch the nymph is able to detect the breath of any

      person sleeping. It will be attracted to the sauce of that breath,

      that is to the bed in which somebody is asleep. It will climb up to

      that bed and find the sleeping person and have its first meal by

      sipping the blood of the person asleep in that bed After its meal

      it will find a hiding place close to the sleeper, which may be in

      the bed such as in a fold or crevice in the mattress or somewhere

      nearby such as in furniture near the bed. It will then come out

      again for more meals over next few weeks and after each meal it

      sheds its skin and grows om size. After five skin shedding after

      meals it will have become an adult bedbug and ot can then breed to

      create more bedbug so in time females lay more eggs in or near that

      bed so when they hatch causing a bedbug infestation of that

      person’s bed. That is how they form in beds.

      Add Comments: