How Can You Kill Bed Bugs Fast
Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control
Can you get rid of bed bugs on your own?
Treating bed bugs is complex. Your likelihood of success depends on many factors, including:
- How many bed bugs you have;
- How much clutter is available for hiding places;
- Whether your neighbors have bedbugs; and
- Whether all residents of a house or building will participate.
Getting rid of bed bugs completely can take weeks to months, depending on the nature and extent of the infestation. To be successful, everyone will need to cooperate and do their part.
The following steps will help you begin:
You may have to follow these steps more than once to kill all the bugs and their eggs.
Identify the Problem
- Identify the pest:
- Collect a sample of the pest to show an extension agentExitor other insect expert.
- Extension agents can identify the pest at no cost to you. They are trained in pest control and know your local area.
Develop a Strategy
- Make a schedule for completing the steps below. Be sure to include any personal plans, such as vacations.
- Keep records through the whole process. Note the dates and exact locations where pests are found. This will help you track progress and better know where to target your work.
- Keep checking for at least a year after you’re done to make sure all the bed bugs are gone.
Keep the Infestation from Spreading
- Remove infested items. Place them in a sealed plastic bag and treat them. Learn more about treatment methods in the sections below.
- Items that cannot be treated should be placed in a sealed plastic bag and left there for up to a year to ensure any active bugs are dead.
- Empty the vacuum after each use. Seal the bag as tightly as possible and immediately throw it out in an outdoor trash container.
- Discard furniture responsibly if you can’t safely eliminate the bed bugs. Destroy it so someone else won’t be tempted to bring it into their home. For example:
- Rip covers and remove stuffing from furniture items.
- Use spray paint to mark furniture with "Bed Bugs."
Prepare for Treatment
Preparing for treatment is very important; it will make it easier to monitor for bed bugs that haven’t been eliminated. This preparation should be completed whether you are doing the treatment yourself or hiring a professional.
Kill the Bed Bugs
- Make sure the methods you select are safe, effective and legal. See What’s Legal, What’s Not.
- Considernon-chemical methodsof killing bed bugs. Some will be more useful than others depending on your situation. These and other methods can be helpful, but they might not get rid of the infestation entirely:
- Heat treatment:You can use a clothes dryer on high heat. You can also use black plastic bags in a hot, closed car in the sun, but success depends on your climate and other factors. Do-it-yourself heat treatments might not work. Professionals have access to more intensive and proven methods that can even treat whole houses with heat. You may also purchase a portable heat chamber, which is usually quite effective.
- Cold treatmentcan be successful in the home environment if the freezer is set to 0 o F. You must leave the items in a sealed bag in the freezer at that temperature for four days. Always use a thermometer to check the temperature, since home freezers are not always set to 0 o .
- Steam cleaners(wet or dry) can get into cracks and fabrics to treat carpets, baseboards, bed frames, and other furniture. The steam temperature must be at least 130 o F but should not have a forceful airflow, or it may cause bed bugs to scatter. Use a diffuser to prevent scattering.
Evaluate and Prevent
- Continue to inspect for bed bugs, at least every 7 days, in case any eggs remain. You can use interceptors, traps or other monitoring methods. Interceptors are placed under the legs of furniture to catch bed bugs and keep them from climbing the legs. Commercial and do-it-yourself interceptors are options.
- Continue to protect your home from bed bugs.
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Everything You Need to Know to Get Rid of Bed Bugs
Before you panic, read up on how the pests really operate.
The resurgence of bed bugs in American homes has caused many a sleepless night — but not everything you hear is true.
Before you start pointing fingers at the reasons your home is infested or why you do — or don’t — have a bed bugs problem, know this: Entomologist Richard Pollack, Ph.D., has found fewer than 10% of the critters people identify as bed bugs actuallyarebed bugs. That’s also why he doesn’t trust websites that list reports of bed bugs at hotels.
If you suspect you’ve got some unwelcome visitors at your house, here is everything you need to know about these nasty insects first.
Where do bed bugs come from?
Bed bugs most notoriously hitch rides on luggage, but traveling isn’t the only way to pick them up. They can easily be carried into the house on secondhand furniture, clothing, boxes, and pillows, so inspect such itemsverycarefully. Encasement products like Good Housekeeping Seal holder AllerEase mattress protector can also prevent bugs that do make it inside from hunkering down in crevices.
But while reports of bed bugs at movie theaters and in retail stores have made headlines, it’s rare that someone actually brings them home, says Jody Gangloff-Kaufmann, an urban entomologist at Cornell University.
What are bed bugs attracted to?
Whether you have a messy home or a neat home, bed bugs only care that their food source, a.k.a. people, are nearby. Luckily, there’s no evidence they transmit diseases as they feed. The real threat: itchy, red bites, which are the first sign of an infestation.
Can bed bugs bite through clothes?
Unfortunately, long-sleeved pajamas won’t shield you from bed bug bites. In fact, that’s one of the tell-tale signs of an infestation. "If you wake up with numerous bites, especially under your clothes, it could be bed bugs," says David Dunham of Go Green Bedbug Dogs. Not everyone experiences the same skin reaction though. "It’s common for one person to become the host or the person getting all the bites, while their spouse or partner will get no bites at all," he adds. "Usually the person not getting bites will discredit their partner’s concerns.
Now, here’s how to get rid of bed bugs:
The first step is searching your furnishings, particularly along and behind the headboard and sides of the mattress. Bed bugs will hole up in furniture, along baseboards, in cracks in walls and, yes, in beds. Look for black stains (they leave behind blood and fecal matter), discarded molted skins, and the bugs themselves, but don’t wait too long to contact a professional.
"The biggest mistake people make is waiting too long to call for help, because the longer the problem goes on, the bigger of a chance they’ll spread within the home and even outside of the home," Dunham says.
Send or bring evidence to your local Cooperative Extension office (usually $5) or contact an online bug-ID service such as Pollack’s IdentifyUS ($30) for a diagnosis. Accuracy is very important, so pinpoint the areas and rooms in your home that need treatment and act swiftly.
As soon as you determine you have bed bugs, seal the infested bedding and clothing in clean plastic bags. Sort items based on how you would wash clothes and make a separate dry-clean only pile, advises the University of Minnesota Department of Entomology. Then wash and dry the items at the hottest temperature they can withstand.
While some bugs will die in the washing machine, it’s the heat of the dryer that will kill more of them. At least 60 minutes on a high-heat setting should do the trick, according to New York State Integrated Pest Management. Immediately dispose of the used plastic bags and put clean clothes in new ones. Don’t take the items out of the bag until the infestation is successfully controlled.
Thoroughly vacuuming rugs, floors, furniture, beds, and all cracks and crevices can also cut down on your bed bug population, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Afterwards, put the contaminated vacuum bag in a tightly sealed bag and throw it away in an outside garbage bin.
While some people think over-the-counter sprays are a solution, pyrethroid-based pesticides may kill or repel some of the insects, but can be dangerous if misused, and it’s doubtful you’ll be successful on your own. Instead, get written quotes from three licensed exterminators detailing their course of action, including pesticides, traps, and/or heat treatments they’ll use and how and where they’ll use them. "You should ask lots of questions to the companies you interview, because a good company will answer them and will never pressure you to make an appointment," says Dunham.
Asking the company about their success rate and if their treatment comes with a guarantee, should their efforts not be successful, is a must. Good luck!
5 Fast & Easy Ways To Get Rid of Bed Bugs
Bed bugs are one of the most disturbing little buggers to ever find in your home. They rival maggots and cockroaches in the fact that once you see them the hair on the back of your neck stands on end, your stomach clenches and you think to yourself “why me!?” as you try to remember how these nasty little monsters got into your home in the first place.
Luckily, no matter how large of a bed bug outbreak you find yourself having to contend with, you can get rid of bed bugs in just five simple steps.
STEP ONE: IDENTIFICATION
The best offense starts simply. You need to make sure that it’s actually bed bugs you’re dealing with here and not some strange beetles that are living off cracker crumbs in your mattress. Take a hard look at your bedding and any clothing near your bed (like a dirty clothes pile). This means your sheets, pillowcases, comforters, box spring, bed frame and every piece of frilly material that’s been added to your bed.
The most effective way to do this properly is to get a high powered flashlight, even a little super bright LED will work. Get down to eye level and slowly go over every inch of your bed. Start at the top and strip bedding off as you inspect it. When you strip it, place it into a black plastic bag for now.
When you get to the mattress and box spring, you should have come across signs of bed bugs. This could be tiny blood specks from them biting you or from you squashing them in your sleep. You can often find exoskeletons from molting and live bugs wandering around as you’ve disturbed them with the light and movement.
Once you know for sure it’s bed bugs, you know what you’re dealing with 100%
STEP TWO: CLEAN UP
Now that you know you’ve got bed bugs and your bedding is all in black bags it’s time to kill these little bed bugs. If you live somewhere hot, take those bags and set them in direct sunlight. This will only work if it’s very warm out, think 80-100 degrees F. Leave the bags out there all day. When night comes, dump the contents into your washer then set the dryer for a tad longer than you usually would, just in case. They can’t handle heat at all and will die.
If it’s not sunny out or you live somewhere a bit colder, skip this part and go directly to the dryer. THEN wash and dry the stuff again. Make sure to dispose of the bag immediately using an outside garbage can.
Your mattress and box spring can also be bagged and set outside if it’s warm enough. If not, you’ll have to rely on sprays and chemicals. Make sure these are safe for human use. If you don’t think you can handle this part, toss the whole bed. Frame and all. Mark it up real good so others don’t take it home when they see it by the curb.
STEP THREE: PREVENTION
Now you’ve got a bug free home right? Well, let’s keep it that way. Get yourself some proven bed bug preventative devices. Traps and all-natural repellent products work great by themselves but work even better when you combine them. Use both for at least a few weeks. This will chase off and kill any stragglers that may have been lurking around.
STEP FOUR: PROFESSIONAL HELP
Even after you think you’ve wiped them all out, you should still consult a professional exterminator to make sure you did a good job and possibly to set up a routine to handle them should they come back. Sometimes even the most thorough at-home approach can simply chase them next door or into the garage until they feel like coming back.
STEP FIVE: LEARN FROM MISTAKES
So you’ve dealt with bed bugs from beginning to end. You’re basically an expert now and if you did the right thing and consulted a professional about these critters, you definitely know more than the average Joe. Understanding that used items are a big no-no to drag into your house without a thorough inspection or treatment is the easiest thing to implement and should be shared with your friends and family so they don’t make the same mistake.
If you’re a landlord, always keep in mind you could potentially get in some legal issues if your tenants are infesting your complex or motel so pay a lot of attention to what’s coming in and out, especially if you live in a bed bug prone area of the country. Set up a monthly inspection routine with a local exterminator and set your mind at ease.
Also, here’s a great resource on the truth about bed bugs and debunking myths, very interesting.
If you ever do have to get rid of bed bug infested items, place them in plastic bags that are large enough to cover the item and label it clearly as “infested with bed bugs” or toss in dirty diapers and coffee grounds to avoid further spreading by dumpster divers and such.
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How to Get Rid of Bed Bugs
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Bed bugs were once a common public health pest worldwide, but declined in incidence through the mid 20th century. However, bed bugs have undergone a dramatic, worldwide resurgence since they have now evolved resistance to common insecticides.  X Research source Bed bugs are one of the great travelers of the world and are readily transported via luggage, clothing, bedding, and furniture. To get rid of bed bugs, act at the first signs of infestation and use an integrated pest management approach involving prevention, sanitation, and chemical treatment. Bed bugs can be persistent, so you’ll need to demonstrate a greater level of persistence if you want to eliminate them.
The Best Bed Bug Sprays to Kill Bed Bugs Fast
Most people use a combination of bed bug sprays and bed bug powders to kill off bed bugs fast. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to get rid of and finding the right spray to eliminate bed bugs is not always easy. Many natural residual bed bug sprays contain natural ingredients that have a proven repellent and insecticidal action against these infesting bugs. Some feel that they have to resort to commercial bed bug sprays to completely get rid of an infestation of bed bugs.
Contrary to popular belief, having bed bugs in your home is not a sign of a dirty home. Bed bugs are commonly found in clean hotel rooms, on public transportation, and movie theaters. They can easily be brought into the home in luggage, backpacks, or by purchasing used furniture. They can also travel between apartments in large complexes.
Although there are many ways to eliminate these tiny crawling bugs from your home, this article focuses on the best bed bug sprays to exterminate bed bugs effectively. You will also learn if natural bed bug insecticide sprays really work and what the precautions when using chemical bug sprays are.
What are Bed Bugs
The scientific name for bed bugs isCimex lectularius. They are small creatures that grow up to 5 mm in size, or about the size of an apple seed. They have a flat oval-shaped body and will become significantly larger if they have fed. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, bed bugs start life as a tiny egg, then grow into a nymph before becoming an adult. 1
According to the Department of Entomology at the University of Kentucky, bed bugs are more active at night when they come out to feed. They feed on the blood of humans and pets, however, in cooler temperatures, can go up to 6 months without feeding. 2
The best places to use bed bug sprays are in the tiny crevices around bed frames, in seams of mattresses, box springs, and headboards where bed bugs like to hide. The University of Kentucky says that unless the first signs of a bed bug infestation aren’t dealt with quickly, bed bugs can migrate to other rooms and infest those.
What are the Signs of Bed Bug Infestation?
To use sprays effectively to eliminate all traces of bed bugs, you need to know the signs of a bed bug infestation. The first sign that you may have bedbugs are some itchy bite marks on your skin when you wake up in the morning. Dr. Carol DerSarkissian on WebMD says that the bites from bed bugs cause red itchy bumps on the skin. 3 You can learn about their other signs and symptoms in my articles on what do bed bug bites look like.
To check for signs of a bedbug infestation, Dr. DerSarkissian says that you may notice rusty-colored spots on bed linen and mattresses. These spots could be either blood stains or bedbug excrement. You may also find shed skins around bed frames, mattresses, and other hiding places. Also, a musty smell is usually present where a large number of bed bugs are living. 4
Other common places where you will have to use a bedbug insecticide spray are behind headboards, in furniture joints, inside books, the edges of carpets where they join with the baseboards, in closets, and behind torn wallpaper.
Getting Rid of Bed Bugs with Sprays
Bed bug sprays usually act as an insecticide and repellent. The best kind of bed bug sprays should kill bed bugs on contact and need to be used repeatedly to help eliminate your bug problem. According to the Texas A&M University, bed bug sprays are best used in combination with other bug control methods like natural bed bug powders. This is because bed bugs don’t build up resistance to natural bug powders and products like diatomaceous earth which kills bed bugs as long as the powder is dry. 5
Apart from spraying insecticidal liquid on bed bugs, other ways of getting rid of bed bugs for good include freezing items, using heat treatment, hot steam, and vacuuming. For more detailed information, read my article about the top 10 ways to get rid of bed bugs.
Natural bed bug sprays or chemical bug sprays?
There are many commercially produced natural and chemical bed bug sprays. It is important to be careful when using chemicals around the home in case they come into contact with children or pets.
According to the Texas A&M University, there are no “magic” insecticide sprays for bed bugs. However, both natural and chemical sprays have a measure of effectiveness against bed bugs. One of the benefits of chemical sprays is that they are stronger and will kill off bed bugs quicker. However, the drawback is that many populations of bedbugs have become resistant to pyrethrins and pyrethroids – the 2 main chemicals in many chemical bed bug sprays. Therefore, they may not be effective in reducing many bed bug populations. 5
One of the reasons that many people choose natural bug sprays instead of chemical ones is that they are less toxic to use around the home. Also, bed bugs don’t build up resistance to natural oils and other ingredients in natural bed bug sprays.
As with all sprays – chemical sprays and natural sprays – you need to spray the liquid directly on the bed bugs to kill them and repeat the application frequently. However, many of the best bed bug sprays have a residual effect and will continue to be toxic to the bed bugs for a certain time after spraying.
The Best Homemade DIY Bed Bug Sprays
Let’s look first at some effective bed bug sprays that you can make at home. There is also scientific research to back up the insecticidal effect of these sprays to use as part of your battle against bed bugs.
Tea tree oil bed bug spray
One of the many uses of tea tree oil around the house is to use it as a DIY natural bed bug spray. Tea tree oil contains compounds that have an insecticidal effect against insects as well as their larvae and eggs. Although no direct studies have been published on the effect of tea tree oil on bed bugs, research has shown that it has a lethal effect on many bugs and insects.
A study in the journalVeterinary Parasitologyreported that diluted tea tree oil effectively kills off fly eggs and also helped to repel larvae. 6 Another study published in the journalBMC Dermatologyfound that tea tree oil was more effective as an insecticide than pyrethrins-based products in getting rid of mites. 7
How to use:
To easily make your own natural tea tree oil insecticidal spray for bed bugs, this is what you should do:
- Put 20-30 drops tea tree oil in a small spray bottle, fill with water, and shake well.
- Liberally spray in all crevices in your bed frame and furniture where you think the bedbugs are.
- Repeat 2 times a day and continue using the spray until all signs of the bed bug infestation have gone.
If you don’t see any improvement, you could try to increase the concentration of tea tree oil. Remember to always shake the bottle well before use.
Essential oil bed bug spray
You can also make your own homemade bed bug spray by mixing other essential oils that are proven to kill off bed bugs. The mixture of essential oils will not only help rid your home of bed bugs, but the pleasant smell will help mask any musty odors from the bugs.
The journalInsectspublished a study on products containing essential oils for bed bug control. It was found that essential oils like cedar oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, peppermint oil, rosemary oil, and lemongrass oil all have insecticidal properties against bed bug populations. The study concluded that using these essential oils in a bug spray can be an effective way to reduce bed bug populations without putting humans at risk of exposure to chemicals. 8
How to use:
To kill off bed bugs from your bed frame, box springs, or mattresses, you can make and use your own essential oil bed bug spray this way:
- In a small spray bottle filled with water, add 10 drops peppermint oil, 10 drops clove oil, and 10 drops cinnamon oil.
- Spray in all joints, screw holes, and nooks and crannies where the bed bugs could be hiding.
- Also, treat mattress seams and other soft furnishings with the essential oil natural bed bug spray.
- Use 2 times a day and continue applying until you no longer see evidence of bed bugs.
- Remember to always shake the bottle well before use.
You can also experiment with different essential oils to get the type of bug spray that is effective for you.
Best Natural Bed Bug Sprays
For many people, it is easier to buy a natural bug spray to kill off bed bugs fast and prevent a new infestation. There are some popular bed bug sprays on the market that have been scientifically proven to eliminate bed bug populations and also get great reviews from customers.
Here are the 3 best bed bug sprays that will help to kill off bed bugs fast and naturally.
EcoRaider contains natural active ingredients geraniol and cedar oil to create a commercial natural bed bug spray.
The journalInsectsstudied the effectiveness of EcoRaider on controlling bed bugs and found that it helped to kill up to 90% of all bed bugs. It effectively killed off bed bugs from sofas, curtains, furniture, and wall decorations. Also, the residual spray was effective for up to 2 weeks after application. 8
To use EcoRaider, the manufacturers recommend spraying all edges and seams of mattresses, as well as box springs, and bed frames. You can also use the spray to kill bed bugs from cushions, behind baseboards, edges of carpets, and moldings. It is safe for the whole household and won’t harm pets. You can get more information about EcoRaider and purchase it in Amazon here.
Bed Bug Patrol
Another natural bed bug spray that has a proven insecticidal effect against pesky bed bugs is Bed Bug Patrol. This natural spray for getting rid of bed bugs contains clove oil and peppermint oil as its active ingredients.
TheJournal of Economic Entomologyreported on a study showing that Bed Bug Patrol eliminated around up to 90% of all bed bug nymphs. The study concluded that Bed Bug Patrol is a “useful pesticide for controlling bed bug infestations.” 9
Bed Pug Patrol doesn’t contain any harsh pesticides and can be sprayed anywhere you see signs of bed bugs. It can also be used safely on fabrics because it won’t stain them. Bed Pug Patrol also comes in various sizes and can be used as a cost-effective method for controlling large bed bug infestations. You can get more information about Bed Bug Patrol and purchase it in Amazon here.
BBT-2000 is another natural pesticide for exterminating bed bugs. BBT-2000 contains cedar and soybean oil to help get rid of bed bugs and prevent them returning. It also has a residual effect on the bugs and will help destroy bed bugs for up to 1 week after spraying.
According to another study in the journalInsects, BBT-2000 showed substantial bed bug control and was also effective against resistant strains of bed bug populations. In some cases, it outperformed chemical bed bug sprays. 10
Chemical Sprays to Get Rid of Bed Bugs
Although some chemical bed bug sprays are effective at dealing with a bed bug infestation, their toxicity to humans and pets are an issue for many people. Great care has to be taken to avoid exposure that could be dangerous to humans, and some bug sprays manufacturers don’t recommend using the product if children are around.
Also, the journalInsectsin 2016 published a report on the growing problem of bed bug becoming resistant to pyrethroids (chemical compounds used to control bed bugs). This means that many commercially available chemical-based bed bug sprays may not be as effective as they once were.
Here are the most effective chemical sprays for bed bugs that are on the market.
Temprid SC is a popular chemical-based bed bug spray because it can also be used to get rid of other bugs and insects from the home.
According to research done on Temprid SC, it contains a combination of chemical pesticides that can be used against pyrethroid-resistant bugs. It has become a popular choice as a chemical bed bug spray to control bed bug populations resistant to pyrethroids. 11
The solution can be sprayed to all cracks and crevices where bed bugs lurk and its residual effect helps to continue eliminating bugs after application. However, it may cause skin irritation if used on mattresses and cushioned furniture. You can get more information about Temprid SC and purchase it in Amazon here.
Harris Bed Bug Killer
Harris bed bug killer is another popular chemical spray to eliminate bed bugs from your home. The manufacturers say that Harris Bed Bug Killer can be used on all soft fabrics to get rid of bed bugs as it won’t stain. You can also spray the solution in all nooks and crannies in your bed frame, furniture, and corners of your room to exterminate the bugs. It is also odorless. You can get more information about Harris bed bug killer and purchase it in Amazon here.
Ortho Home Defense
Because of its fast-acting effect on killing bed bugs, Ortho Home Defense aerosol spray gets good online reviews. Ortho Home Defense bed bug spray is also effective against populations of pyrethroid-resistant bugs and can be used for ticks, fleas, and lice.
According to a study carried out on Ortho Home Defense, it contains a chemicalbifenthrinthat is considered relatively safe and kills off bugs that pyrethroid-based insecticides can’t. It is also effective against bed bug eggs and larvae. 12 It should be sprayed as a spot treatment in any crevice where bed bugs can reside. You can get more information about Ortho Home Defense bed bug spray and purchase it in Amazon here.
Get to Know the Bed Bug Habits
In order for bed bug sprays to be effective in your battle against these tiny pests, you should know something about the habits of bed bugs.
According to the National Pesticide Information Center, there are a few facts that are important to know to completely eliminate the very last bed bug from your home. 13
For example, females can lay eggs anywhere and it can take up to 10 days for them to hatch. Therefore, it’s important to continue using bed bug sprays and powders even after you think the bed bugs have gone for good.
At room temperature, bed bugs can survive for up to 3 months without feeding. So, even if no one is living in the room, bed bugs can still survive, especially if there is enough moisture in the air. However, to get rid of bed bugs effectively, you should not just rely on bed bug sprays for exterminating the pests, you should have an integrated pest control management program. This includes using various methods for bed bug removal.
Get Rid of Bed Bug Bites
While you are fighting your bed bug infestation with sprays, bed bug powders, and other techniques, you may have to treat bed bug bites.
According to Dr. William Shiel on MedicineNet, bed bugs will bite any exposed area of the body and the most common places are the face, neck, and arms. The bed bug bite can leave you with an itchy welt that looks like a small raised red bump. 14
You can treat bed bug bites by using a tea tree oil spray. The journalClinical Microbiology Reviewspublished studies showing that tea tree oil can help to reduce skin inflammation and has antimicrobial action. 15
You can make a natural bed bug bite treatment by putting 1 cup distilled water in a spray bottle and adding 10-15 drops tea tree oil. Shake well and spray on areas of skin that have clusters of bed bug bites. Or, you could spray the remedy on a cotton pad and apply to the itchy bumps on your skin. You can also dilutes tea tree oil with a carrier oil, such as coconut oil or sweet almond oil (a few drops of tea tree per one tablespoon of carrier oil).
Alternatively, if you only have one or two bites, you could put a drop of tea tree oil directly on the bite as a spot treatment to help relieve itching, inflammation, and prevent any infection developing.
For more ways to stop skin irritation caused by bed bug bites, please see my article on the top ways to get rid of bed bug bites naturally.
Read these related articles:
- EPA. Bed bugs appearance and life cycle.
- Entomology. Bed bugs.
- WebMD. Bed bugs: signs of an infestation.
- WebMD. Bed bugs: signs of an infestation.
- CityBugs. Bed bugs: do-it-yourself control options.
- Vet Parasitol. 2012 Mar 23;184(2-4):271-8
- BMC Dermatol. 2010 Aug 20;10:6.
- Insects. 2014 Dec; 5(4): 849–859.
- J Econ Entomol. 2014 Dec;107(6):2163-70.
- Insects. 2014 Dec; 5(4): 942–951.
- Sci Rep. 2014; 4: 3836.
- Med Sci Monit. 2006 Feb;12(2):BR57-62.
- NPIC. Bed bug biology and behavior.
- MedicineNet. Bedbugs
- Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006 Jan; 19(1): 50–62