How Many Bed Bugs Are Needed To Reproduce

Bed Bug Facts & Statistics

Read our Bugs Without Borders Survey below for more bed bug statistics.

The following bed bug facts and statistics are compiled from the 2018 Bugs Without Borders survey conducted by the National Pest Management Association:

  • Almost all (97 percent) pest professionals have treated bed bugs in the past year.A majority of them say that overall bed bug service work (69 percent) and the prevalence of these pests (66 percent) are increasing.
  • Bed bugs may be easily confused with other pests, as 84 percent of pest control professionals were initially contacted about a different type of pest before identifying them as bed bugs. The majority of these contacts (71 percent) were about fleas, followed by cockroaches (28 percent).
  • More than half of pest control professionals noted that they receive the most bed bug complaints during the summer, as increased travel during this time of the year may help spread bed bugs from vacation destinations to homes or even college lodgings to homes as students go on summer break.
  • The top three places where pest professionals report finding bed bugs are single-family homes (91 percent), apartments/condominiums (89 percent), and hotels/motels (68 percent). Past bed bug statistics have shown these environments to consistently be the top three where bed bugs have been encountered.
  • Bed bugs are also found seemingly everywhere else and in higher numbers, such as nursing homes (59 percent), schools and daycare centers (47 percent), offices (46 percent), college dorms (45 percent), hospitals (36 percent) and public transportation (19 percent).
  • Bites are the most commonly reported sign of an infestation (92 percent) and more than half of people reach out for treatment after discovering bites and welts on their bodies.Although some people immediately develop a skin reaction to bites, others may take two to three days before showing obvious symptoms or any symptoms at all, meaning that people could be unaware of a bed bug problem until a full-blown infestation has taken root.
  • Typically found in couches and bed frames, bed bugs can also be found in some of the most unexpected places, including stuffed animals, wheelchairs, airplanes, school buses, purses and even inside bedside lamps.

Previous Bed Bugs in America Survey

The following bed bug statistics and facts are compiled from the NPMA’s 2011 Bed Bugs in America Survey:

  • One out of five Americans has had a bed bug infestation in their home or knows someone who has encountered bed bugs at home or in a hotel
  • Americans who have encountered bed bugs tend to be younger, live in urban areas and rent their homes. The incidence of bed bugs is three times higher in urban areas than in rural areas due to factors such as larger population size, apartment living and increased mobility, which are conducive to the rapid spread and breeding of bed bugs.
  • Bed bugs are found in all 50 states. Specifically, the pests were encountered by 17 percent of respondents in the Northeast; 20 percent in the Midwest; 20 percent in the South; and 19 percent in the West.
  • Most Americans are concerned about bed bugs and believe that infestations in the United States are increasing. Nearly 80 percent are most concerned about encountering bed bugs at hotels; 52 percent on public transportation; 49 percent in movie theaters; 44 percent in retail stores; 40 percent in medical facilities; 36 percent in their own homes; and 32 percent equally pointed to places of employment and friends’ homes. The fear of getting bitten topped the list of concerns.
  • As the public’s awareness of the bed bug resurgence grows, many Americans are modifying their behaviors to minimize their risk of an infestation: 27 percent have inspected or washed clothing upon returning from a trip; 25 percent have checked a hotel room for bed bugs; 17 percent have inspected or vacuumed a suitcase upon returning from a trip and 12 percent have altered or canceled travel plans because of concern about bed bugs.
  • Sixteen percent of survey respondents inspected second-hand furniture they have brought into their homes; 15 percent have checked dressing rooms when trying on clothing and 29 percent have washed new clothing immediately upon bringing it home from a store.
  • Of the 13 percent of respondents who said they knew someone who had a bed bug infestation in their home, 40 percent said they avoided entering the infested home and 33 percent discouraged those who had the infestation from entering their own home.
  • Despite the availability of information, most Americans still have misconceptions about bed bugs. Nearly half of respondents incorrectly believe that bed bugs transmit disease. However, research conducted to date has shown that bed bugs do not transmit disease to their human victims, although some people may experience itchy, red welts; 29 percent inaccurately believe bed bugs are more common among lower income households, and 37 percent believe bed bugs are attracted to dirty homes. Bed bugs do not discriminate in regard to household income and are found in both sanitary and unsanitary conditions.

How Do Bed Bugs Reproduce?

After a sleepless night, bedridden with bed bug bites, did you ever wonder how are they coming in such large numbers? How the process ofbed bug reproductionlooks when there are so many of them? Their numbers are great, and that is the main problem when it comes to containing the epidemic of bed bugs. I have had problems with these pests more than once. That is why I have decided to learn something about their reproduction because if you know how a certain pest in reproducing/multiplying, you are going to be able to fight them off in a more successful way.

How do bed bugs reproduce? The act of bed bug reproduction is called “traumatic insemination”. The process begins with the male bed bug stabbing the abdomen of the female with a peculiar hard reproductive organ. By stabbing her, the organ opens a crack in the shell of a female bed bug, and through that crack injects sperm into the body cavity. The sperm flows through the female body and as a result, in the end it fertilizes the eggs.

We know all of this sounds weird and confusing, that is why we will add more info for clarification. Female bugs can get hurt by frequent reproducing, so they will even sometimes hide from the possible mating processes. The process of laying eggs takes 6 to 8 weeks. The bed bug life cycle is very interesting, so we suggest you stay with us and read the article until the very end.

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So How Are There So Many Bed Bugs?

Before fertilization can happen, bed bugs need to feed themselves and shed their skin for 5 times. For that to happen, it takes around 37 days – in case the bed bugs can find a host to feed on regularly. After the fertilization of the female happens, she will be carrying eggs from 6 to 8 weeks, but it will lay the first eggs after just 3 days.

Research showed that the males are likely to reproduce with recently fed female bugs because their outer membrane is thinner and easier to pierce. The act of fertilization leaves the female bug scared. There is one crucial information – the female bed bug is also feeding herself during the whole process of egg carrying. Sometimes she is distancing herself from her mates so she could feed herself better, and by doing so, lay more eggs.

By distancing her self from the male bed bugs she will also minimize the chance of getting hurt by constant reproduction cycles. Someone would think “how would a female bug lay more eggs by distancing herself from the male bugs? It doesn’t make sense.” Well, it is not that simple. While she is distancing herself, she is also preserving the eggs. How? By allowing herself to feed regularly. By doing so, she is caring for the eggs in the best possible way, by giving them enough time and food to develop correctly. If the process of thebed bug reproductionwas different, she would probably have less hatching cycles and fewer eggs in each cycle.

On average, in onebed bug reproductioncycle, 3 to 8 eggs are laid every week, and in perfect conditions that number goes up to 12 eggs per day! It takes 6 to 9 days for eggs to hatch. Immediately after hatching the young bed bugs their feeding process begins. When you know the information that the female bug layson average 200 to 250 eggsin her lifetime, you can understand how we haven’t found the way to deal with them during all this time.

There were even cases were one female bed bug laid over500 eggs in her lifetime.It is very hard to fight that many bed bugs! Even if you try, the bed bugs will give you a hard time, because they will not lay their eggs just in plain sight. They will find a place that is very hard to reach, like cracks in the walls, electric outlets or under the furniture.

What Is A Traumatic Insemination?

How did the bed bugs come to reproducing by piercing the female abdomen with a male organ? This somewhat strange method of reproduction started because of female bed bugs resistance to mating. There were a lot of male bed bugs competing for one female, and of course, all of them want to inject their sperm into female ovaries. That escalated, and some males developed long penises which allowed them to inject sperm closer to ovaries. Some otherevolvedin the other direction and started using the method now known as traumatic insemination.

Males pierce the female abdomen and inject sperm into their bloodstream. Through blood, it goes directly into the ovaries, and there the fertilization of the eggs happens. This is adopted as the only method of mating in bed bugs. This whole process has a clearly negative impact on female bed bugs. It reduces their life span and it even decreases its reproductive output.

Why? Because bed bugs need time to repair the wound, stop the bleeding, and that method also has a higher risk of infection through the wound. Female bed bugs have an evolved reproductive organ calledspermalege. It consists of two different parts called ectospermalege and mesospermalege.

Some Facts On Bed Bugs Reproduction

Temperature As A Factor For Successful Bed Bug Reproduction

The temperature of the inhabited space is one of the crucial elements for fruitfulbed bug reproduction.If the warmth is 70°F/21°C or above, around 60 percent of eggs will be hatched by day 6. Somewhere around day 9, around 90% will be hatched. If the temperature goes down, it will increase the time needed for the egg hatching.

The ideal temperature is between 70°F/21°C and 90°F/32°C, under those conditions, bed bug number will be in most cases doubled. Those temperatures are common in human homes, so we can say that bed bugs evolved alongside humans and they adopted our habits. They are inside in the warm, and they don’t need to go through harsh weather conditions outside. We are aperfect hostfor these pests.

Ways of Stoping Bed Bug Reproduction

The main problem with bed bugs is the speed of their reproduction. Also, they are small, adaptable to the environment and hard to see. So with that information, you can say that it is pretty hard to stop a bed bug infestation.

In theory, you can treat bed bugs with pesticides right away, but you will need to be thorough. We made our list of recommended sprays for eradicating bed bugs. In fact, we made two different lists, one withnatural (eco) type of bed bugs spraysand the other withregular bed bug spraysthat are usually more effective. Whatever you chose from our list it will help you if you are having a small to medium infestation. But if you are having a huge bed bugs infestation, the best way would be to hire professionals.

Can Female Bed Bugs Lay Eggs Without Mating?

No, it is impossible for the female bed bug to lay eggs without mating. One strange thing about female bed bugs is that they can store sperm, and choose the time to fertilize the eggs. Before laying the eggs a female bed bug needs first feed herself. Also, when the sperm has been used up, she needs to mate again in order to lay more eggs. Sometimes if she lives for a longer period, believe it or not, one of her offsprings will mate with her and the cycle will continue until the female bed bug dies.

Is It Possible for Male Bugs to Lay Eggs?

No, because male bed bugs lack the female organs needed to create and store eggs. Females, on the other hand, don’t have organs needed to fertilize the eggs. So there is an absolute need for males and females in the whole process from fertilization to laying off the eggs.

Do Bed Bugs Have Some Sort of Mating Season?

No, and that is the reason why there are so many of them. Even when outside is cold or a winter season it won’t affect bed bugs because they are in your home, and the temperature is ideal for their mating. That is one of the main reasons why bed bugs areregularly choosing humansas their hosts. The best time for the mating is right after they feed off the host, so you can now understand why their numbers are constantly great.

Do the Bed Bugs Use Their Host as a Place for Laying Eggs?

Bugs are attracted to their hosts only when they want to feed. They don’t want to lay their eggs on the host, because that would be risky for the eggs and for the bed bugs itself. Humans would easily get rid of bed bugs by just sweeping them off the skin. They don’t have any kind of claws with which they could use to hold on to some part of the host (like lice), so theanswer is definitely no.


In this article, we talked about how bed bugs reproduce (“Traumatic Insemination”). This is one of the most unique ways that insects reproduce. It just seems brutal and weird. Knowing thatlower temperaturesslow down their reproduction is a good thing to know but it is very hard to reproduce lower temperatures in our house. Onlyspecial gearthat exterminators use can reach extreme temperatures (hot or cold). That is why it is always a good thing to call them if you have a huge infestation of bed bugs. I hope some of this information will help you in your fight against bed bugs.

If you found this article interesting please use or site for more information about bed bugs or other pests.

List of Sources

Traumatic insemination and sexual conflict in the bed bugs Cimex lectularius, University of Sheffield

Six Facts You Didn’t Know About Bed Bugs

Wacky, Weird but True Bed Bug Facts

If you follow the news and have seen all the attention bed bugs have received in the past few years, you might think you know all there is to know about this pest: They feed on humans while they sleep, they cause itchy, red bumps and they are hard to get rid of! But these pesky insects have a lot of secrets that you might be surprised to learn. Check out these weird and wacky bed bug facts!

Fact #1: Bed bugs can live anywhere.

When most people think of bed bugs, they think of hotels. But the truth is, bed bugs can thrive in single-family homes, apartments, hospitals, college dorm rooms, office buildings, schools, buses, trains, movie theaters, retail stores and just about anywhere that humans are. In fact, according to the "Bugs without Borders" study, 89 percent of pest professionals report treating bed bug infestations in single-family homes, and 88 percent report treating bed bug infestations in apartments/condos. Respondents also report other common areas, with 67 percent treating bed bug infestations in hotels/motels, 35 percent in college dormitories, 9 percent on various modes of transportation, 5 percent in laundry facilities, and 4 percent in movie theatres.

Fact #2: Bed bugs aren’t just city dwellers.

Contrary to popular belief, bed bugs are not just in big cities or third-world countries. They are found in all 50 states. The NPMA’s " Bed Bugs in America" survey found that 17 percent of those surveyed reported having bed bugs in the Northeast; 20 percent in the Midwest; 20 percent in the South; and 19 percent in the West. However, the incidence of bed bugs is three times higher in urban areas than in rural areas due to factors such as larger population size, apartment living and increased mobility, which are conducive to the rapid spread and breeding of bed bugs.

Fact #3: Bed bugs are hardy.

These pests can live for several months without a blood meal. This means they can linger in furniture, bags and suitcases for a long time until they are near a human host again. In addition, bed bugs can survive temperatures of nearly freezing to 122 degrees. Because of this, bed bugs are not a pest that can be treated with DIY measures. Professional pest control is the most effective way to treat an infestation.

Fact #4: Bed bugs are smart.

As a survival instinct, bed bugs are elusive. They know to stay out of view during the daytime, hiding in mattress crevices, box springs, baseboards, behind electrical switchplates, in picture frames, and even behind wallpaper. But at nighttime, the carbon dioxide we exhale often tempts them out of their hiding spots.

Fact #5: Bed bugs are methodical.

Bed bugs have a predictable feeding pattern. Once a bed bug finds a host, it will usually feed for 5 to 10 minutes until repletion. Sometimes the pattern of bed bugs feeing is jokingly referred to as breakfast, lunch and dinner as bites will often be found in a pattern. But the bite marks they leave behind – often in clusters or in a row on exposed skin on the chest, arms or legs – are telltale signs of a bed bug infestation.

Fact #6: Bed bugs could have a degree in anesthesiology.

People often wonder why a biting bed bug doesn’t wake up its human host when it feeds. The answer is that components in bed bug saliva act as an anesthetic and promote increased blood flow at the bite site, making the feeding process quick and nearly painless.

After feeding, bed bugs move to secluded places and hide for 5-10 days. During this time, they do not feed but instead digest their meal, mate and lay eggs.

If you have a bed bug infestation, don’t try to treat it alone. Instead, contact a licensed pest professional who is trained on the (unique, often sneaky) habits of bed bugs. They will be able to inspect your home and recommend an effective course of treatment.

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Copyright ©2020 National Pest Management Association

Copyright ©2020
National Pest Management Association

Bed Bug Reproduction

By DoMyOwn staff

How do bed bugs reproduce?

Male and Female bed bugs mate by what is called traumatic insemination. The traumatic insemination takes place by basically stabbing the female’s abdomen with a specialized hardened reproductive organ. The fertilization can take place at any location on the abdomen and the male’s gametes will travel to her ovaries or reproductive gametes. Once fertilization occurs the female contains viable eggs for 5-7 weeks. After three or so days of feeding, the female begins to lay eggs. As the female lays eggs, she continues to feed. She can produce an average of 3-8 eggs a week. The eggs hatch and immediately feed.

Female bed bugs are capable of laying as many as twelve eggs each day after being fertilized and having a proper blood meal. They are deposited in small cracks and crevices along bed frames, baseboards, and carpet linings. The female lays the eggs with an adhesive layer to assure that the eggs will stay in place. The baby bed bugs will hatch from the eggs in around six to seventeen days. The young emerge and immediately begin to feed or search for food. Nymphs and adults are able to survive long periods of time without food. Bed bugs usually live for a year to a year and a half. Three or more generations can occur each year.

To stop bed bug reproduction, use an IGR (insect growth regulator). For bed bugs, we specifically recommend using Gentrol IGR.

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How do the bugs in the apartment multiply and can one bug grow? – Bedbugs – 2020

Video: Reasons Why Bed Bugs Spread (April 2020).

Bed bugs are a problem that every person encounters at least once in a lifetime. In order to understand how to deal with them it is necessary to find out how they multiply. For example, many are interested in the hermaphrodite bugs or not? This is what we will try to figure out the article.

Stages of bug development, life cycle

In life, any bug passes through several stages of development. At the same time, the individual can die at any stage. To further develop bugs, blood is needed, without which they can not cross to another stage. The entire period of development lasts about 1 month, but the duration may also depend on various factors:

  1. Temperature conditions.For a better life, the temperature is about 20-25 degrees.
  2. Humidity.Everyone knows that insects love moisture, and bedbugs are no exception.
  3. The darkness.Bugs live only in dark places, that is, if there is not a single dark corner in the house, the bugs can not reproduce there and exist.
  4. Power.To grow and grow bugs, human blood is needed. Without it, the population is likely to cease to exist.

In total, in the development of the bug, seven stages can be counted, which go successively one after the other.
Egg. It has just been delayed by the female. Eggs reach 1mm, they are translucent and oval.

  1. Stage 1 of thelarva. The larva has just hatched from the egg and has begun to live. It reaches 1.5mm in length. Body white, almost transparent.
  2. 2 stage of thelarva. The bug is already growing – 2mm in length, gradually the body becomes darker. Such larvae are sometimes called nymphs. They are not yet capable of reproduction.
  3. The third stage of thelarva is 2.5 mm. At this stage, the larva begins to actively discard the hair, due to the lack of a chitinous skin on the skin. The individual is still incapable of reproduction
  4. The fourth stage of thelarva is 3 mm. At this stage, the larva has its first feeding, as it is necessary for the body to fully moult. Nymphs consume too much blood and bring a person inconvenience, as one adult has 20 times more larvae. Small bugs do not inject anesthetic into the blood, so their bites are especially painful.
  5. Stage 5 of thelarva is 4, 5 mm. There is evidence that at this stage the individuals can reproduce, but not all attempts to lay eggs are successful.

The adult insect is 5 – 5.5 mm in length, this individual is ready for reproduction.

How does the reproduction of bedbugs occur?

Bedbugs reproduce, like most insects – by mating. In this case, unlike other insects, sexual contact does not occur by mutual desire. The male forcibly enters his sexual organ into the cavity of the female, piercing it and injecting the seminal fluid. Reproduction of bedbugs is traumatic. The seed enters the abdominal cavity of the female and is stored there for a lifetime, so that the female can independently fertilize and excrete new offspring without the help of a male.

At the same time from one such sexual intercourse a whole family of bedbugs can arise in one apartment.
After some time after fertilization, the female begins to lay 5-15 eggs a day.
It is important to note that males are not very choosy in choosing a sexual partner, and often attack individuals of the same sex, or small females. It should be noted that the results of studies in the population very often come across males with a pierced belly.

Where in the apartment do bedbugs build a nest?

Most often, bedbugs tend to ensure that people do not find them, so they hide in all dark crevices, where it can be convenient. They are called bed-type because they mostly live in mattresses, beds and under them, as well as in bed linens.

This insect is not fundamentally a habitat, the main thing is to have a comfortable temperature, sufficient humidity, closeness of food and darkness.

Bugs in the daytime are difficult to detect, because they are carefully hidden. The period of activity of the bedbug, when it can be detected, is a person’s strong sleep, which occurs early in the morning. Usually at this time people wake up from the bites of the larvae, which are felt quite painfully. At the same time, they live in nests, and can also breed in clothing.

The nest is in chaos, it completely lacks any hierarchy. In the "house" of bugs can be mixed larvae with adults and waste of life. At the same time in the apartment there may be even one, but several nests of bedbugs. In this case, individual larvae separate from the population and form their own families.

When do larvae hatch?

After the female lays eggs, they mature within 3-25 days, and then hatch. At the same time, the egg ripening time depends entirely on the temperature, the colder the longer the individual will be in the shell. A deferred egg can die if conditions for existence and development are unfavorable, for example it will be too cold.

How quickly do bugs multiply?

In order to understand how quickly bugs multiply, it is necessary to calculate how many eggs the females deposit. Usually it is from 30 to 60 individuals per month. But we need to take into account that during this time the female will bring out new females, that is, the process of reproduction will occur in a geometric progression. In this case, the bugs are multiplying by traumatic insemination, the mechanism of which is prescribed above. At the same time, the female can lay no more than700 eggsin her life, and she lives forabout a year.During this time, the apartment can turn into hell, especially if there are a lot of people living in the apartment, as the food for parasites is human blood.

Can one bug grow?

On this question for a long time could not find an unambiguous answer, as earlier conducted experiments, placing one female in a box and she began to lay eggs, after a while. Now the time has passed and the mechanism of reproduction of these insects has been fully studied. One bug can multiply only if it’s a female, and it has already been fertilized.

Males can not reproduce themselves, it was revealed scientifically, by conducting series of experiments. Moreover, the populations in which there were some males, although they made attempts to reproduce, it was not possible. In connection with this, bugs are not able to reproduce alone.

Can bugs reproduce without food?

In order for fertilization in bedbugs to occur, both males and females need blood, otherwise their body will simply not have enough reserve. Thus for this process there should be about 3-7 high-grade receptions of food (blood). Only individuals feed at night, because of fear of being discovered. Without blood, there can not be bedbugs.

Moreover, blood is necessary for bedbugs not only for reproduction, but for growth. At different stages of the life cycle, the amount of blood consumed is different for individuals. For example, larvae of bedbugs consume less food, but more often, and adults at a time drink more blood, but they do it much less often.

When bedbugs are starving, their body begins to dry out, all life processes slow down. They become passive, practically do not move and spend all their time in the nest.

In the house there were bugs – they immediately begin to multiply?

When bed bugs appear in the room, their very first task is to find a place for reproduction and nutrition. Bedbugs begin to multiply immediately after they find a nest, regardless of the cause of their appearance. Usually they can be found at 5-6 in the morning, as this is the peak of their activity. In addition, around the house you will find a strange husk, this is the skin that larvae discard during moulting.

If the temperature in the house is less than 13-14 degrees, bed bugs fall into a hibernation, but if they are brought into a warm room, they immediately start to multiply.

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