How Many Days Bed Bugs Can Live Without Food

How Long You Can Live Without Food, Water, or Sleep

You can live without air conditioning and indoor plumbing, but there are some true necessities of life. You can’t survive for long without food, water, sleep, or air. Survival experts apply the "rule of threes" to lasting without essentials. You can go about three weeks without food, three days without water, three hours without shelter, and three minutes without air. However, the "rules" are more like general guidelines. Obviously, you can last a lot longer outside when it’s warm than when it’s freezing. Similarly, you can last longer without water when it’s humid and cool than when it’s hot and dry.

Take a look at what ultimately kills you when you go without the basics of life and how long people have survived without food, water, sleep, or air.

How Long Does Starvation Take?

The technical name for starvation is inanition. It is extreme malnutrition and calorie deficiency. How long it takes for a person to starve to death depends on factors that include general health, age, and starting body fat reserves. One medical study estimated the average adults could last from 8 to 12 week without food. There are documented cases of a few individuals lasting 25 weeks without food.

A starving person is less sensitive to thirst, so sometimes death is from the effects of dehydration. The weakened immune system also makes an individual more likely to catch a fatal infection. Vitamin deficiency may also lead to death. If a person lasts long enough, the body starts using protein from muscles (including the heart) as an energy source. Usually, the cause of death is cardiac arrest from tissue damage and electrolyte imbalance.

As a side note, starving people don’t always get inflated stomachs. Stomach distension is a form of malnutrition from severe protein deficiency called kwashiorkor. It can occur even with sufficient caloric intake. The belly is filled with fluid or edema, not gas, as is commonly thought.

Dying of Thirst

Water is an essential molecule for life. Depending on your age, gender, and weight, you consist of around 50 to 65% water, which is used to digest food, carry oxygen and nutrients through the bloodstream, remove wastes, and cushion organs. Since water is so critical, it should come as no surprise that dying from dehydration is an unpleasant way to go. Oh, in the end, a victim is unconscious, so the actual dying part isn’t so bad, but that only occurs after days of pain and misery.

First comes thirst. You’ll start to feel thirsty after losing about two percent of your body weight. Before unconsciousness occurs, the kidneys start to shut down. There isn’t enough fluid to produce urine, so most people stop feeling the need to urinate. Attempting to do so anyway can result in a burning sensation in the bladder and urethra.

Lack of water causes cracked skin and a dry, raspy cough. Coughing won’t be the worst, though. While you might be out of fluids, that won’t prevent vomiting. The increased acidity of the stomach can produce dry heaves. Blood thickens, increasing heart rate. Another unpleasant result of dehydration is a swollen tongue. While your tongue swells, your eyes and brain shrink. As the brain shrinks, the membrane or meninges pulls away from the bones of the skull, potentially tearing. Expect a horrible headache. Dehydration eventually leads to hallucinations, seizures, and a coma. Death can result from liver failure, kidney failure, or cardiac arrest.

While you might die of thirst after three days without water, there are numerous reports of people lasting a week or longer. Several factors come into play, including weight, health, how much you exert yourself, temperature, and humidity. The record is supposedly 18 days, for a prisoner accidentally left in a holding cell. However, it’s reported he may have licked condensation from the walls of his prison, which bought him some time.

Top 10 Myths about Bedbugs

The insects, making a comeback around the globe, cannot fly and are really not interested in hanging out on your body–but they do occasionally bite during the day

  • By Megan Scudellari on May 27, 2011

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Once a pest of the past, bedbugs now infest every state in the U.S..Cimex lectularius—small, flattened insects that feed solely on mammalian and avian blood—have been living with humans since ancient times. Abundant in the U.S. prior to World War II, bedbugs all but vanished during the 1940s and ’50s thanks to improvements in hygiene and the use of pesticides. In the past 10 years, however, the pests have staged a comeback worldwide—an outbreak after the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney was a harbinger of things to come. This revival may be the worst yet, experts say, due to densely populated urban areas, global travel and increasing pesticide resistance—something to consider as the summer travel season gets underway.

"By every metric that we use, it’s getting worse and worse," says Coby Schal, an entomologist at North Carolina State University in Raleigh. Health authorities and pest control operators are regularly flooded with calls, and the epidemic may not have yet peaked. And because bedbugs are indoor pests, there are no high or low seasons throughout the year, he adds, only continual bombardment. "It’s just the beginning of the problem in the U.S.," Schal says.

Spreading rapidly with the bedbugs is a mass of misinformation about their biology and behavior. Straight from the experts, here are the facts behind some of the most notorious myths about the diminutive bloodsuckers.

Myth 1: Bedbugs can fly
Bedbugs lack wings, and therefore cannot fly. That is unless you put a blow dryer behind them, says Stephen Kells, a bedbug researcher at the University of Minnesota. Then they’ll fly about 1.2 meters. On their own, bedbugs crawl about a meter a minute, he says.

Myth 2: Bedbugs reproduce quickly
Compared with other insects, bedbugs are slow to reproduce: Each adult female produces about one egg per day; a common housefly lays 500 eggs over three to four days. Each bedbug egg takes 10 days to hatch and another five to six weeks for the offspring to develop into an adult.

Myth 3: Bedbugs can typically live a year without a meal
Scientists debate this point, but evidence suggests that at normal room temperature, about 23 degrees Celsius, bedbugs can only survive two to three months without a blood meal. But because they are cold-blooded, their metabolism will slow down in chillier climates, and the insects may live up to a year without feeding.

Myth 4: Bedbugs bite only at night
Although bedbugs are generally nocturnal, they’re like humans—if they’re hungry, they’ll get up and get something to eat. "If you go away to visit a friend for a week and you come back and sit down on the couch, even though it’s daytime the bedbugs will come looking for you," Schal says. Keeping a light on, then, unfortunately does not keep these tiny vampires away.

Myth 5: Bedbugs live exclusively in mattresses
"’Bedbug’ is such a misnomer," Kells says. "They should also be called pet bugs and suitcase bugs and train bugs and movie theater bugs." Bedbugs spread away from beds into living areas and can be seen on any surface, he says, including chairs, railings and ceilings.

Myth 6: Bedbugs prefer unsanitary, urban conditions
"Bedbugs are terribly nondiscriminatory," Schal says. Bedbugs can be found anywhere from ritzy high-rises to homeless shelters. The prevalence of the bugs in low-income housing is therefore not a result of the insect’s preference, but of dense populations and the lack of money to pay for proper elimination strategies. "Any location is vulnerable," Kells says. "But some people are going to have a harder time getting control of them because it is such an expensive treatment."

Myth 7: Bedbugs travel on our bodies
Bedbugs do not like heat, Kells says. They therefore do not stick in hair or on skin, like lice or ticks, and prefer not to remain in our clothes close to our bodily heat. Bedbugs are more likely to travel on backpacks, luggage, shoes and other items farther removed from our bodies.

Myth 8: Bedbugs transmit disease
Bedbug bites can lead to anxiety, sleeplessness and even secondary infections, but there have been no reported cases of bedbugs transmitting disease to humans. They do, however, harbor human pathogens: At least 27 viruses, bacteria, protozoa and more have been found in bedbugs, although these microbes do not reproduce or multiply within the insects. Canadian researchers announced (pdf) in the June issue ofEmerging Infectious Diseasesthat bedbugs isolated from three individuals in a Vancouver hospital carried methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus, aka MRSA. Still, there have been no reported cases that the bugs actually transmit human disease.

Myth 9: We should bring back DDT
When the controversial pesticide DDT was banned in 1972, most bed bugs were already resistant to it, Schal says, and today’s populations are even more widely resistant thanks to the use of a new class of pesticides. Pyrethroids, the main class of pesticides used against bedbugs today, targets sodium channels in bedbug cells, just like DDT. Consequently, as bedbugs develop resistance to pyrethroids, they also become cross-resistant to DDT.

How to Manage Pests

Pests of Homes, Structures, People, and Pets

Bed Bugs

In this Guideline:

  • Don’t bring bed bugs home when you travel (2:40)
  • How to inspect for bed bugs (2:20)
  • How to use a bed bug detector (2:29)

Bed bugs adults and nymphs. Scale bar represents 5 millimeters.

Bed bug eggs on paper. Eyespots are visible as red dots on the developing bed bug embryos.

Life stages of a bed bug. The five nymphal stages each require a blood meal before molting to the next stage. The increments on the ruler are millimeters.

Bed bug bites cause swellings that become red and irritated when scratched. Some people, however, exhibit no visible symptoms after being bitten.

Fecal spots of bed bugs. Eggs and cast skin (exuviae) are visible in the upper left-hand corner.

Bed bugs are blood-sucking insects in the family Cimicidae. Both nymphs and adults feed on sleeping or sedentary humans, mostly at night, a time when this pest’s stealthy habits are difficult to observe.

Bed bugs are found worldwide in association with human habitations. The common bed bug,Cimex lectularius, is a widely distributed species most frequently found in the northern temperate climates of North America, Europe, and Central Asia. It occurs more sporadically in southern temperate regions. In tropical regionsC. hemipterus, the tropical bed bug, is the dominant species. The most common species found in California isC. lectularius.

The growth and development ofC. lectulariusis optimal when it feeds on humans; however, this insect also feeds on other species of mammals and on birds found near the home including chickens, mice, rats, and rabbits. Bat bugs and swallow bugs, close relatives of bed bugs, may also be found in and around human dwellings and may sometimes bite humans, although their preferred hosts are bats and birds, respectively.

Until recently, bed bug infestations were thought to be associated primarily with crowded and dilapidated housing. However, bed bugs have undergone a resurgence in pest status and can now be found even in the finest hotel and living accommodations. The reasons for this resurgence aren’t totally understood but appear to involve increased global travel and commerce, ease of movement of infested items, widespread insecticide resistance, and changes in pesticides available to control this pest.

IDENTIFICATION AND LIFE CYCLE

Adult bed bugs are oval, wingless, about 1/5 inch long, and rusty red or mahogany. Their bodies are flattened, they have well-developed antennae, their compound eyes are small, and the area behind the head (the pronotum) expands forward on either side of the head, bearing many small hairs. The immatures, called nymphs, appear identical to the adults except for their smaller size (1/20 –1/5 inch), thinner outer skeleton (cuticle), and lighter yellowish-white color.

Bed bugs are readily distinguished from another common blood-sucking species, conenose bugs (also known as kissing bugs), by their smaller size, more rounded shape, and lack of wings as adults. Conenose bugs may be up to 3/4 inch long. (SeePest Notes: Conenose Bugs.)

Bed bugs can be distinguished from their close relatives bat bugs and swallow bugs by comparing the length of the hairs on the pronotum to the diameter of the eye; this requires a hand lens or microscope. These hairs are shorter than the diameter of the eye on a bed bug and longer than the diameter of the eye on bat bugs and swallow bugs. This distinction is sometimes important to make, since managing these bed bug relatives involves managing their vertebrate hosts (i.e., bats and swallows) nesting in, on, or near homes.

Female bed bugs lay 200 to 500 tiny (1/20 inch) white eggs during their lifetimes, usually two to five eggs per day, on rough surfaces such as wood or paper near their hosts’ sleeping places, resting places, or both. Gluelike material covers the eggs, which hatch in about 10 to 15 days at room temperature. After hatching occurs, the eggshells frequently remain stuck in place.

There are five progressively larger nymphal stages, each requiring at least one blood meal before molting to the next stage. The entire life cycle from egg to adult requires anywhere from five weeks to four months, depending on temperature and availability of food (blood). Development occurs most rapidly when temperatures are between 70° and 82°F.

Both nymphs and adults generally feed at night and hide in dark cracks and crevices during the day, although hungry bugs may feed any time hosts are nearby and sedentary. Common hiding places are typically located within 6 or fewer feet from areas where humans sleep or rest and include: along mattress seams and tufts; beneath covers; in wood joints of box springs; in cracks and joints of bed frames; behind baseboards and headboards; under loose wallpaper; behind picture frames; and inside furniture, appliances, electronics and upholstery. Bed bugs are more likely to harbor in or on materials made of wood, paper, or fabric as compared to those made of metal or plastic.

Occasionally, people may pick up bed bugs in theaters or on buses and trains. People can also bring bed bugs into their home on infested clothing, bedding, furniture, and luggage.

Bed bugs can go without feeding for 20 to 400 days, depending on temperature and humidity. Older stages of nymphs can survive longer without feeding than younger ones, and adults have survived without food for more than 400 days in the laboratory at low temperatures. Adults may live up to one year or more, and there can be up to four successive generations per year.

DAMAGE

Bed bugs feed on humans, usually at night when they are resting. This insect feeds by piercing the skin with its elongated mouthpart, which consists of four stylets that normally fold under its body when at rest but fully extend during blood feeding. Two maxillary stylets form canals, a small salivary canal that carries saliva into the wound and a relatively large food canal through which body fluids from the host are taken in.

A bed bug can take up to six times its weight in blood during one feeding event, which takes between 3 and 10 minutes. Usually people aren’t aware they have been bitten until afterward; bites occur while people sleep, and bed bugs are known to inject a natural anesthetic while feeding. However, saliva injected during the feeding can later produce allergic dermal reactions such as large itchy swellings on the skin. These may become irritated and infected when scratched. Swelling may not develop until a day or more after feeding, and some people show no symptoms at all. Bed bugs have never been shown to transmit human disease.

Distinguishing bed bug bites from the bites of other arthropods such as mosquitoes, fleas, and spiders is difficult to impossible. People often confuse itching bed bug welts with mosquito bites. The only way you can really confirm bed bugs as the cause is to find the bugs or their signs in your bed or bedroom. Often people are bitten when traveling and may be unable to produce a specimen, making diagnosis even more difficult.

In addition to direct injury to humans, bed bugs leave odors and unsightly fecal spots on bed sheets and around the insects’ hiding places. These spots are usually reddish brown or dark brown to black, sometimes yellowish, roughly round (although sometimes they appear as streaks), and can be very small.

MANAGEMENT

How to inspect for bed bugs(2:20)

Confirmed bed bug infestations should be managed by trained professionals. Managing a bed bug infestation is a difficult task that requires removing or treating all infested material and follow-up monitoring to ensure the infestation has been eliminated. Management will require employing several nonchemical methods such as vacuuming, washing bedding at a high temperature, using steam or heat treatment, and sealing up hiding places.

Insecticides may be required to eliminate serious infestations. Several active ingredients are federally registered for bed bugs for over-the-counter use, but few have been demonstrated as effective. Pest management professionals (PMPs) have access to a wide range of effective registered products; however, insecticide resistance among bed bug populations is increasingly common. The best approach is to combine chemical and nonchemical tactics with increased sanitation and habitat modification practices. Prevention and monitoring of bed bug infestations are paramount and should be ongoing.

Monitoring and Detection

The presence of raised wheals, blisters, rashes, or any other dermal symptom associated with arthropod bites should never be used for diagnosis, since several household pests are known to bite humans, and since reactions vary widely between individuals. You can confirm a bed bug infestation only by detecting the pests themselves or their signs, which include fecal spots, blood spots, egg cases, and shed skins (exuviae).

Current research indicates 85% of bed bugs are found in or near the bed, so inspections for infestations should initially focus on the mattress, box spring, bed frame, and headboard. Lift the mattress and inspect all its seams and surfaces as well as those of the box spring. You may need to dismantle the bed. Keeping in mind bed bugs can utilize cracks and crevices as small as the width of a credit card, make sure to thoroughly inspect all potential harborage sites. Use a flashlight and a small mirror to aid in the inspection process. It can take a good deal of time, patience, and perseverance to detect low-level infestations.

Remember, these nocturnal insects are small. Although you can see adults and aggregations of nymphs with the unaided eye, seeing the eggs requires a hand-magnifying lens. Make sure to look for dark spots of dried bed bug excrement, blood spots where engorged bugs were inadvertently crushed, or the insects’ light-colored shed skins. A foul, rotting, bloody meat, or acrid “buggy” smell might be present in heavily infested areas.

The remaining 15% of infestations usually are in upholstered furniture other than beds; in bedroom cabinets; along baseboards; under wallpaper; and in carpets, wall hangings, and similar hiding spots. Bed bugs prefer fabric or wood surfaces to metal or plastic. When there are heavy infestations, keep in mind that adjoining rooms, filing areas, and clutter can be out-of-the-way shelters.

Recent research has shown that canine detection utilizing dogs conditioned to the scent of bed bugs can be an effective tool for detecting bed bug infestations. Laboratory and simulated field studies have shown this method can be very accurate; under actual field conditions, however, canine detection accuracy has been highly variable. Therefore, third-party certification and ongoing training of any canine team should be verified before hire, and any canine detection alert should be confirmed with a detailed inspection by a trained PMP.

Other recent research indicates monitors that attract or intercept bed bugs moving between a hiding place and a host can aid in bed bug detection, particularly when using several monitors near beds or suspect locations. Pest management professionals are already widely using these monitors. Although quite diverse in terms of size, appearance, and price, monitors generally fall within one of two categories: active monitors or passive monitors. All monitors have the benefit of ease of inspection as compared to potentially having to disassemble furniture and other household items to find bed bugs.

Active monitors employ an attractant—usually heat, carbon dioxide, host odors (kairomones), pheromones, or a combination of these—to lure bed bugs out of their harborage areas and into a pitfall or sticky trap within the monitor. These devices have the potential, especially in the absence of a host, to detect bed bugs that would normally remain hidden. Airborne aggregation pheromones and other behavior-modifying chemicals might someday help detect low-density infestations.

Passive monitors either exploit a bed bug’s affinity for dark crevices or rely on chance encounters with pitfalls or sticky traps.

Interceptor monitors are a hybrid between active and passive (pitfall) monitors in that they rely on the presence of a host (a sleeping human) to attract hungry bugs and then trap the parasites on route to their meal. These small double-cupped monitors are easily installed under the legs of beds and other furniture items. Research has demonstrated that such interceptors trapped six times more bed bugs than were found from human visual searches alone.

Prevention

People may bring bed bugs into their homes in luggage or on clothes after visiting an infested dwelling or hotel. If you travel frequently, look for signs of bed bugs in your hotel room by checking behind headboards and under sheets and by inspecting mattress seams and tufts, especially if you have been bitten. If you suspect bed bugs are present, change rooms or hotels. Inspect your luggage before leaving, and as soon as you get home, wash and dry all your clothes at the hottest settings the fabric will permit. Frequent travelers may want to store luggage away from the bedroom, such as in the garage or a hall closet.

You may also inadvertently bring bed bugs into your home on infested bedding or furniture. If you purchase second-hand furniture, especially beds or mattresses, thoroughly inspect the item before bringing it into your home. If you remove infested mattresses or furniture from your home, don’t leave them on the curb or porch. Take such items immediately to the dump or clearly mark them as infested by bed bugs so others won’t unknowingly bring the items into their homes.

Managers of hotels, furnished apartments, dormitories, homeless shelters, and other facilities that house transient populations need to train staff to recognize signs of bed bug activity and take action as soon as they find an infestation. One proactive step a manager can take is to regularly replace beds, mattress, and bedding materials. Frequently laundering bedding and placing potentially infested items into walk-in freezers or heat units during tenant turnover can help prevent the spread and establishment of bed bugs. Keep clutter down, so it is easier to inspect and so bed bugs have fewer hiding places. Also, seal up cracks, crevices, and holes in bedding, furniture, and other potential hiding sites. It is much easier to manage a bed bug infestation when the population is small.

Nonchemical Management

A number of nonchemical control methods can be used to manage bed bugs. These methods are directed at killing or removing bugs or restricting their access to beds or bedding material.

You can remove bed bugs and eggs with the suction wand of a strong vacuum; however, you must target the seams of mattresses and box springs, along perimeters of carpets, under baseboards, and in other areas where bed bugs live. A single vacuuming rarely gets all bugs and eggs and should, therefore, be repeated. Portable steam cleaners and other steam delivery devices can kill all bed bug life stages, so these items can also be used to clean mattresses and furniture. Care must be taken, however, to ensure steam penetrates into the areas harboring bed bugs and their eggs.

Commercial heating services are available to treat entire rooms in homes for bed bug infestations. The current recommendation for effective commercial heating services calls for a temperature of at least 140°F for two hours or 130°F for three hours (the minimum lethal temperature is 113°F), which will kill most bed bugs and eggs. In California, providers of heat services must be licensed and bonded by the Structural Pest Control Board. Chilling to a temperature of 32°F or lower and maintaining this temperature for several days will also kill bed bugs.

For suspected infestations in clothing or bedding, a home laundry drier at the hottest setting can be effectively used to deliver the necessary heat. At least 10 to 15 minutes exposure will be needed. Before using this method, consider whether heat will damage the fabric.

Mattress encasements specifically designed to prevent bed bugs from establishing harborages on mattresses are commercially available and have been shown to be effective through laboratory research. Encasements are particularly useful for hotels or other facilities with many beds. Encasements can also be used to contain bed bugs within mattresses when they can’t be discarded or when control tactics such as steam or insecticide application are unavailable or undesirable. Bugs trapped inside encasements will eventually die due to starvation.

Other management practices include sealing up hiding places where bed bugs can hide such as cracks and crevices in walls and around windows and doors. As a temporary measure, you can sometimes exclude bed bugs by using commercially available double-cupped monitors that are easily installed under bed legs.

Insecticides

Insecticide applications alone won’t control bed bug infestations. Insecticides must be combined with infestation prevention measures—a program of removing and cleaning infested beds, bedding, and other harborage sites—as well as nonchemical tactics such as steam or heat delivery and an ongoing evaluation and detection program to ensure treatment was effective and to manage future infestations early on.

The most effective bed bug pesticides are available to commercial pesticide applicators only. Professionals also have the equipment and expertise that allow for a more effective and precise application of insecticides. In addition, professionals have the training to detect and isolate infestations, which often allows for more effective long-term management.

Insecticides may be applied as liquids directly to cracks, crevices, bed frames, baseboards, and other similar sites, or they may be applied as dusts in cracks and crevices. Pesticides aren’t generally applied to mattresses or bedding because of potential risk to people. Using over-the-counter total-release aerosol foggers has been shown to be ineffective for bed bug control and potentially harmful to residents; therefore, they aren’t recommended.

Liquid insecticide formulations, many of which are available for use only by PMPs, include:

  • Products containing the botanical insecticide pyrethrin, which gives quick knockdown but little long-term control
  • Various synthetic pyrethroid products (e.g., cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin)
  • Mixtures of pyrethroids and neonicotinoids (e.g., Temprid and Transport)
  • Various botanical oils
  • Newer types of products including the pyrrole insecticide chlorfenapyr (Phantom) and the insect growth regulator (IGR) hydroprene (Gentrol)

Fumigation using the active ingredient sulfuryl fluoride is commercially available for bed bug control in California and can be highly effective. However, this is a highly specialized and regulated treatment method, best for remedial control only. Since fumigants have no residual effects, other methods or a combination of methods will be needed to prevent reinfestations.

Some bed bug populations have developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides and no longer can be effectively controlled by them. Therefore, there is growing interest in alternatives such as the mixtures, botanicals, and IGR listed above. Some studies, however, suggest that mixtures containing pyrethroids continue to drive resistance, that oils have little to no residual action, and that chlorfenapyr and hydroprene may take many days to kill bed bugs.

Insecticides applied as dusts cling to the pest’s cuticle, wearing away the insect’s protective wax covering or poisoning the insect when it grooms itself. Several dust products used in bed bug management include borates, diatomaceous earth, silica gel, and formulations containing pyrethrin or pyrethroids. These materials can provide long-term control as part of an integrated program if they are placed in out-of-the-way places, such as under baseboards or in wall voids, that don’t get wet. Bed bugs may not groom themselves to the same degree as other pests, such as cockroaches, so insecticide dusts requiring consumption, including borates, may be less effective than anticipated.

Do-It-Yourself Treatments

Although over-the-counter pesticide products that have bed bug control written on the label can be found on store shelves, they aren’t generally recommended. Performance of these products under actual field conditions isn’t known. If you need to use a pesticide, you are better off hiring a licensed professional pesticide applicator with experience in treating bed bugs; seePest Notes: Hiring A Pest Control Company.

Residents do have an important role to play when their homes are infested with bed bugs. Once professional treatment has occurred, you should continue to monitor for bed bugs daily. Also, keep down clutter, and vacuum previously infested areas regularly.

REFERENCES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Acute illnesses associated with insecticides used to control bed bugs, seven states, 2003-2010.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report60(37):1269–1274.

Cooper, R. 2011. Ectoparasites, Part Three: Bed Bugs & Kissing Bugs. In S. Hedges, ed.The Mallis Handbook of Pest Control, 10th ed. Richmond, Ohio: GIE Media Inc. pp. 587–632.

Ebeling, W. 1975. Bed Bugs and Allies (Cimicidae). InUrban Entomology. Oakland: Univ. Calif. Agric. Nat. Res. pp. 463–475.

Getty, G. M., R. L. Taylor, and V. R. Lewis. 2008. Hot house.Pest Control Technol.36(2):97–100.

Getty, G., S. Moore, R. Tabuchi, and V. R. Lewis. 2012. A trial evaluation of the London Luxury bed bug mattress protector.Pest Control Tech.40(12):116–118.

Greenberg, L., and J. H. Klotz. Nov. 2002.Pest Notes: Conenose Bugs.Oakland: Univ. Calif. Agric. Nat. Res. Publ. 7455.

Jones, S. C., and J. L. Bryant. 2012. Ineffectiveness of over-the-counter total-release foggers against the bed bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae).J. Econ. Entomol.105(3):957–963.

Moore, D. J., and D. M. Miller. 2006. Laboratory evaluations of insecticide product efficacy for control ofCimex lectularius.J. Econ. Entomol.99(6):2080–2086.

Moore, D. J., and D. M. Miller. 2008. Field evaluation of insecticide treatment regimens for control of the common bed bug,Cimex lectularius (L.).Pest Manag. Sci.65:332–338.

Pfiester, M., P. G. Koehler, and R. M. Pereira. 2008. Ability of bed bug-detecting canines to locate live bed bugs and viable bed bug eggs.J. Econ. Entomol. 101(4):1389–1396.

Potter, M. F. 2008. Bed Bugs. University of Kentucky ENTFACT-636.

Romero, A., M. F. Potter, D. A. Potter, and K. F. Haynes. Insecticide resistance in the bed bug: a factor in the pest’s sudden resurgence?J. Med. Entomol.44(2):175–178.

Siljander, E., R. Gries, G. Khaskin, and G. Gries. Identification of the airborne pheromone of the common bed bug,Cimex lectularius.J. Chem. Ecol.34:708–718.

Ter Poorten, M. C., and N. S. Prose. 2005. The return of the common bed bug.Pediatr. Dermatol.22:183–187.

Thomas, I., G. G. Kihiczak, and R. A. Schwartz. 2004. Bed bug bites: a review.Int. J. Dermatol.43:430–433.

Wang, C., M. A. El-Nour, and G. W. Bennett. 2007. Controlling bed bugs in apartments—a case study.PestControl Technol.35(11):64, 66, 68, 70.

Wang, C., T. Gibb, and G. W. Bennett. 2009. Evaluation of two least toxic integrated pest management programs for managing bed bugs (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) with discussion of a bed bug intercepting device.Journal of Medical Entomology46:566–571.

Wang, C., K. Saltzmann, G. Bennett, and T. Gibb. 2012. Comparison of three bed bug management strategies in a low-income apartment building.Insects3:402–409.

Wilen, C., D. L. Haver, M. L. Flint, P. M. Geisel, and C. L. Unruh. Apr. 2006.Pest Notes: Hiring A Pest Control Company.Oakland: Univ. Calif. Agric. Nat. Res. Publ. 74125.

SUGGESTED READING

Bed Bugs. 2013. UC Riverside Center for Invasive Species Research.

Bed Bug Information. 2013. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

PUBLICATION INFORMATION

Pest Notes: Bed Bugs

UC ANR Publication 7454

Authors: A. M. Sutherland, UC Cooperative Extension, Alameda Co.; D.-H. Choe, Entomology, UC Riverside; and V. R. Lewis, Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, UC Berkeley.

Produced by University of California Statewide IPM Program

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HOW LONG CAN BED BUGS LIVE WITHOUT FEEDING?

How long can bed bugs live without blood? The answer depends on the age of the bed bug, if it is resistant to certain pesticides and the temperature range it is exposed to. “How long can bed bugs live without feeding before becoming adults?” is the first question to ask yourself.

A newly hatched bed bug is called a nymph. Nymphs go through five stages before becoming mature adults. When a bug molts, it sheds its skin. Immature bed bugs molt five times before reaching maturity and must feed in between every molt. For that reason, nymphs must feed more often. Despite their young age, newly hatched bed bugs can still survive for at least a few weeks without feeding.

But if nymphs can survive weeks without feeding, how long can bed bugs live without blood after maturity? That depends. When living in warm conditions, bed bugs will usually try to feed at regular intervals. Adult bed bugs can survive for about five months without a blood meal.

Once the bed bug settles on a host, it will feed for a few minutes. Length of feeding depends on the stage of development, how much it ate last time and how long it’s been since it last fed. After the bed bug is full, it will leave the host and return to a crack or crevice, typically where other bed bugs are gathered.

Bed bugs usually feed every three to seven days, which means that most of the population is in the digesting state, and not feeding much of the time. However, because bed bug infestations can spread so rapidly, it can often feel like you are waking up with new bites every morning. This can lead to high stress levels and a lack of sleep.

Don’t let bed bugs get the best of you. A pest control specialist can help you kick bed bugs out of your house and keep them out.

Polanco AM, Miller DM, Brewster CC. Survivorship During Starvation for Cimex lectularius L.. Insects. 2011; 2(2):232-242.

Oak Hill Gardens

Do Bed Bugs Live Outside? Where and How Long Can They Survive Outdoors?

We can hear you wondering:“How are bed bugs a gardening issue?”

Well, they are not, with respect to being a threat to your beautiful orchids or clematis. But if you know that these blood-sucking pests can attack you while doing a bit of weeding or planting, then, the problem suddenly becomes relevant to every keen green-fingered enthusiast out there. Not to mention the youngins with sensitive skin – your kids with an avid interest in gardening or a habit of just playing outdoors at every opportunity.

So, can bed bugs live outside the house?

Yes, quite worryingly, they can.

This post will answer the question and will explore how bed bugs survive outside and where. We’ll also explain why you should stay vigilant, even if your home interior is presently free of these minute biting pests.

Last but not least, you’ll learn how to prevent them from infesting both the outside and inside of your property.

How do “indoor” bed bugs come to live out in your garden?

Bed bugs won’t settle outdoors by choice. They are either unknowingly brought or driven outside.

The insects are renowned for their hitchhiking skills, as they can easily attach themselves to bags, clothes and shoes and this way, travel any distance. On that note, you can bring bed bugs to your property by buying second-hand garden furniture, cushions, throw-overs for your outside sofa or fluffy toys.

“A pest control treatment indoors can drive away a few survivors that run for dear life but “decide” to stay close to the inhabited building – their valuable former abode.”commented Alexander Crawley, an entomology consultant at Fantastic Pest Control in Australia, “Those will sneak and hide in cracks of wooden furniture, outdoor structures, wood piles, upholstered outdoor furnishings, trampolines and more.” he adds.

How far can bed bugs travel outside?

Well, bed bugs can travel on foot, be it on grass or hard surfaces, which are not too smooth. Considering their tiny size (about 4mm), they can cover a relatively big distance of up to 20 feet per day (or night). So can bed bugs travel through grass house to house? Yes, they can.

The pests have the ability to sense the release of carbon dioxide from their potential hosts (when breathing), as well as their heat. This means that they may also drop by and visit you, after leaving a neighboring property for whatever reason, like running away from an insecticidal treatment, getting hungry in a recently abandoned house or looking for additional food sources, due to bed-bug overcrowding and competition or in other words – due to the expansion of their existing colony.

Sometimes, even the use of regular gardening tools like a lawn mower, a leaf rake or even gardening boots could help them cut the distance and infest a new area.

Why do bed bugs try everything to move inside your home?

Despite that this article has a focus on bed bugs living outdoors, it’s important to know that sooner or later, they’ll attempt to relocate indoors, to live with you.

Why? They need blood to survive.

The insects don’t feed onanything else. Moreover, it’s human blood that they are genetically programmed to thrive on and reproduce, with some exceptions. Some types of bed bugs live by feeding on bats.

Also, if starving and as a last resort, the human-insect pests may settle for an emergency feed, sourced from pets, chickens or other domesticated animals.

So, the vermin will be always attracted to inhabited properties and live, breed and grow their colony near people. Hence, their name, as well. After all, what better opportunity to feed than when their host is resting nonchalantly in bed, sound asleep.

Okay, but where do bed bugs hide outside?

Okay, then. Bed bugs will not hide in a flower patch or directly in the grass of your lawn, but they can colonize temporarily the reclaimed or repurposed wooden beams of your raised vegetable bed, for instance.

Also, it’s not unheard of to spot a family of bed bugs and their eggs in crevices of second-hand garden planters, made from wood, wicker, rattan or even plastic that imitates the structure of the last two. If you want to avoid uninvited guests, you may want to buy your gardening pieces, like planters, new.

As discussed earlier in the post, bed bugs will also happily wait outdoors for better times to come in the following:

Outdoor buildings- This includes wooden exterior and interior structural fixtures, cracks, holes and crevices in those, as well as infested items in a said outdoor building, which are made or part-made of fabric.

Patio furniture- Bed bugs will snuggle in wooden, wicker, rattan furniture, upholstered furniture, cushions, furnishing covers and blankets.

Your car, camper van- The pests may try to escape the cold by moving into any type of vehicle, parked on your property (you may also bring bed bugs to your property via your travels by car).

Garden structures and items- We could be talking, here, about pergolas, wooden trellises and frames, etc.

Firewood pile- Or the insects could be in a temporary hideout in wooden building material, stacked near your house.

General clutter- Again, be it inside an outdoor building or storage unit, or outside, somewhere you keep disused equipment under a cover, bed bugs will make use of any old electronic appliance (TVs, radios, etc.) or even old gardening equipment, like a broken lawn mower.

How long can bed bugs make it, if living outdoors?

How long bed bugs can live outside your house will depend on several factors. Weather conditions, the presence/absence of the pests’ natural predators, as well as the duration of food deprivation will play a crucial role.

On a more lighthearted note, their fate depends on how long bed bugs have remained undetected. If you spot them on your garden sofa, you’ll do something about it, right?

But let’s see what exactly kills bed bugs, outside a timely insecticidal treatment, and how long it would take for them to die outdoors.

Here is the right place to note that the vermin-insects possess superior survival skills.

The enemies of bed bugs

Bed bugs do have some natural predators, which will eat them without a blink. Masked hunters, Pharaoh ants, common cockroaches, some lizards and spiders will all gladly devour any bed bugs that cross their path.

Still, this doesn’t mean that predators are a reliable bed bug control solution, because it’s unlikely that they can eliminate an entire outdoor colony of vampire-insects.

Food deprivation

The biting insects are able to reach adulthood only if they regularly eat blood. Also, female bed bugs won’t be able to lay eggs if blood is not available.

However, bed bugs can go on without food for a very long time. We’re talking months, up to 5 months in warm weather conditions. If temperatures are low, though, an adult bed bug will self-regulate its own body temperature in sync with that outside. The result is that the insect goes into a state, where the lack of food stops being an issue, for a long while at least.

In lab conditions, it’s been determined that some bed bugs can survive for over a year without a single blood meal. Nymphs however, will die out much sooner, of course.

Heat and cold

With respect to heat, bed bugs won’t survive a professional heat treatment. They will struggle with temperatures above 120° Fahrenheit (49°C). Naturally, such heat cannot happen outside, or at least in most places across the world. So, the scorching summer sun cannot drive bed bugs to extinction, with some exceptions, maybe – in the desert.

If you’re curious as to what temperature can kill bed bugs, check out this video.

Cold weather will also pose no huge risk to bed bug survival, unless the temperature plummets under 1° – 0°F (-18°C).

As we’ve explained above, their body temperature also drops so that they can preserve their energy and survive for a significant length of time.

How do you get rid of bed bugs?

You can take measures to prevent bed bugs from hanging in and around your property. Here’s how.

It’s harder to treat contaminated outdoor surfaces against bed bugs with success unless you apply a professional pest control method in a repeated manner, at an interval of 2-4 weeks.

For instance, a heat treatment will prove reliable, if applied in storage units, outdoor buildings and vehicles.

Vacuuming garden furniture and applying an insecticidal product will also reduce the population of bed bugs.

Additionally, you can seal wooden and rattan furnishings with a strong oil-based varnish after the treatment.

Most importantly, you can learn from our tips below how to minimize the risk of getting a bed bugs problem in the first place or if your property has suffered an infestation in the past:

Keep watch and stay vigilant;

If you spot bites on your skin, consider that it could be bed bugs;

Wash clothes, bags straight away after returning from a trip;

Inspect and clean the interior of your car (motor home) on a regular basis;

Keep clutter to a minimum in outdoor buildings and storage rooms inside your home;

Inspect second-hand furniture, even when bought from a trusted thrift store, or best try to avoid purchasing used items that can be easily infested;

Maintain a high level of cleanliness in your property;

Have regular bed bugs inspections by hiring a professional;

Treat your home now and again against the biting insects as a preventative measure;

Keep good relations with your neighbors – say, the house next door has bed bugs – your neighbor should ideally warn you if their property has been recently treated against the pests.

Tip: Never throw out contaminated furniture without treating it, first. Otherwise, this could spread the problem elsewhere and drive the bed bugs to someone else’s garden.

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