How Treat Bed Bugs Bites

Bedbugs

In this Article

In this Article

In this Article

Bedbugs are small, oval, brownish insects that live on the blood of animals or humans. Adult bedbugs have flat bodies about the size of an apple seed. After feeding, however, their bodies swell and are a reddish color.

Bedbugs do not fly, but they can move quickly over floors, walls, and ceilings. Female bedbugs may lay hundreds of eggs, each of which is about the size of a speck of dust, over a lifetime.

Immature bedbugs, called nymphs, shed their skins five times before reaching maturity and require a meal of blood before each shedding. Under favorable conditions the bugs can develop fully in as little as a month and produce three or more generations per year.

Although they are a nuisance, they are not thought to transmit diseases.

Where Bed Bugs Hide

Bedbugs may enter your home undetected through luggage, clothing, used beds and couches, and other items. Their flattened bodies make it possible for them to fit into tiny spaces, about the width of a credit card. Bedbugs do not have nests like ants or bees, but tend to live in groups in hiding places. Their initial hiding places are typically in mattresses, box springs, bed frames, and headboards where they have easy access to people to bite in the night.

Over time, however, they may scatter through the bedroom, moving into any crevice or protected location. They may also spread to nearby rooms or apartments.

Because bedbugs live solely on blood, having them in your home is not a sign of dirtiness. You are as likely to find them in immaculate homes and hotel rooms as in filthy ones.

When Bedbugs Bite

Bedbugs are active mainly at night and usually bite people while they are sleeping. They feed by piercing the skin and withdrawing blood through an elongated beak. The bugs feed from three to 10 minutes to become engorged and then crawl away unnoticed.

Most bedbug bites are painless at first, but later turn into itchy welts. Unlike flea bites that are mainly around the ankles, bedbug bites are on any area of skin exposed while sleeping. Also, the bites do not have a red spot in the center like flea bites do.

People who don’t realize they have a bedbug infestation may attribute the itching and welts to other causes, such as mosquitoes. To confirm bedbug bites, you must find and identify the bugs themselves.

Continued

Signs of Infestation

If you wake up with itchy areas you didn’t have when you went to sleep, you may have bedbugs, particularly if you got a used bed or other used furniture around the time the bites started. Other signs that you have bedbugs include:

  • Blood stains on your sheets or pillowcases
  • Dark or rusty spots of bedbug excrement on sheets and mattresses, bed clothes, and walls
  • Bedbug fecal spots, egg shells, or shed skins in areas where bedbugs hide
  • An offensive, musty odor from the bugs’ scent glands

If you suspect an infestation, remove all bedding and check it carefully for signs of the bugs or their excrement. Remove the dust cover over the bottom of the box springs and examine the seams in the wood framing. Peel back the fabric where it is stapled to the wood frame.

Also, check the area around the bed, including inside books, telephones or radios, the edge of the carpet, and even in electrical outlets. Check your closet, because bedbugs can attach to clothing. If you are uncertain about signs of bedbugs, call an exterminator, who will know what to look for.

If you find signs of infestation, begin steps to get rid of the bugs and prevent their return.

Bedbug Treatments

Getting rid of bedbugs begins with cleaning up the places where bedbugs live. This should include the following:

  • Clean bedding, linens, curtains, and clothing in hot water and dry them on the highest dryer setting. Place stuffed animals, shoes, and other items that can’t be washed in the dryer and run on high for 30 minutes.
  • Use a stiff brush to scrub mattress seams to remove bedbugs and their eggs before vacuuming.
  • Vacuum your bed and surrounding area frequently. After vacuuming, immediately place the vacuum cleaner bag in a plastic bag and place in garbage can outdoors.
  • Encase mattress and box springs with a tightly woven, zippered cover to keep bedbugs from entering or escaping. Bedbugs may live up to a year without feeding, so keep the cover on your mattress for at least a year to make sure all bugs in the mattress are dead.
  • Repair cracks in plaster and glue down peeling wallpaper to get rid of places bedbugs can hide.
  • Get rid of clutter around the bed.

If your mattress is infested, you may want to get rid of it and get a new one, but take care to rid the rest of your home of bedbugs or they will infest your new mattress.

Continued

Bedbug Extermination

While cleaning up infested areas will be helpful in controlling bedbugs, getting rid of them usually requires chemical treatments. Because treating your bed and bedroom with insecticides can be harmful, it is important to use products that can be used safely in bedrooms. Do not treat mattresses and bedding unless the label specifically says you can use them on bedding.

Generally it is safest and most effective to hire an experienced pest control professional for bedbug extermination.

Sources

University of Kentucky College of Agriculture: "Bed Bugs."

Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet: "Bed Bugs."

The New York City Department of Heath and Mental Hygiene: "Stop Bed Bugs Safely."

University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension Lancaster County: "Managing Bed Bugs."

Bed bugs: Six cheap and natural solutions to treat itchy bites at home

BED BUG bites can be extremely irritating, especially if you have a serious infestation and lots of bites, but there are ways to deal with them. David Cross, head of Technical Training at Rentokil Pest Control outlines six ways to treat the itch.

Bed bugs are small insects that live in the cracks and crevices in and around beds, and the recent heatwave has caused a reported increase in their numbers in the UK.

They crawl out at night and bite exposed skin, leaving small, red lumps. Bites can appear from a few minutes after being bitten up to a week or two later, according to the NHS.

Although bed bug bites are painless, they can be very itchy and irritating.

“Bedbugs aren’t dangerous and don’t spread any diseases, but some people experience a reaction to their bites and they can be stressful to live with,” the NHS said.

Related articles

There are many natural remedies and ‘old wives tales’ on what you can use to help reduce the inflammation and itching associated with bed bug bites

David Cross, Rentokil Pest Control

So what’s the most effective method of treating bed bug bites?

“There are many natural remedies and ‘old wives tales’ on what you can use to help reduce the inflammation and itching associated with bed bug bites,” said Rentokil’s David Cross.

According to Cross, there are six treatments to try, which should be applied after washing the bites with soap and water, before drying them.

Calamine lotion

This relieves itching and also helps to dry rashes and protect the skin.

Baking soda and water

Make a paste with baking soda and water, and apply it directly to the skin. Let it dry before wiping away with a cotton pad.

Bed bug bites are painless but can be itchy and irritating (Image: Getty Images)

Toothpaste

The menthol contained in toothpaste is said to be a good anti-itch remedy. Apply a generous amount to the bite to soothe the burning sensation and relieve the itching.

Witch Hazel

This provides a mild anaesthetic effect that helps to calm the itching caused by bites.

Aloe Vera

Both “fresh” Aloe Vera or gel works well against insect bites. The active substances and amino acids present in Aloe Vera help relieve itching and burning sensations.

Lemon juice

This has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. It is also a natural astringent. Lemon juice can help dry rashes and itchiness while reducing redness and swelling.

As bed bugs are small and only come out at night, they can be difficult to spot and it is therefore not always easy to identify if you have an infestation.

Related articles

Bed bug bites usually fade in a few days, but there are ways to treat the itch (Image: Getty Images)

Bed bugs often bite in lines or clusters on the skin (Image: Getty Images)

Bed bugs: How to spot them and how to get rid of them

Bed bugs: What are bed bugs? How to spot an infestation and how to get rid of them.

Bed bugs: How to spot them and how to get rid of them

However, one thing which distinguishes them from other biting insects is the pattern in which they bite.

Because they are crawling insects, as opposed to flying insects such as mosquitoes, bed bugs often bite in lines or clusters across the skin.

Bed bug bites also usually occur on exposed areas such as the face, neck, hands or arms.

In more severe cases, bed bug bites may cause a rash or fluid-filled blisters. They can also become infected with bacteria if scratched.

According to the NHS: “The bites usually fade in a few days. If they’re very itchy, you can buy a mild steroid cream (such as hydrocortisone) or antihistamine tablets to relieve the itch.”

“See your GP if you develop signs of a skin infection, including pain, redness and swelling, as you may need antibiotics,” the NHS said.

Bedbugs

Bedbugs are small insects that often live on furniture or bedding. Their bites can be itchy, but do not usually cause other health problems.

Check if it’s bedbugs

Jeff March / Alamy Stock Photo

Bedbugs can hide in many places, including on bed frames, mattresses, clothing, furniture, behind pictures and under loose wallpaper.

Signs of bedbugs include:

  • bites – often on areas exposed while sleeping, like the face, neck and arms
  • spots of blood on your bedding – from the bites or from squashing a bedbug
  • small brown spots on bedding or furniture (bedbug poo)

Bedbug bites can be red and itchy. They’re often in a line or cluster.

Otto Pleska / Alamy Stock Photo

Some people have a reaction to the bites. They can be very itchy and there may be painful swelling.

How you can treat bedbug bites

Bedbug bites usually clear up on their own in a week or so.

Things you can do include:

  • putting something cool, like a clean, damp cloth, on the affected area to help with the itching and any swelling
  • keeping the affected area clean
  • not scratching the bites to avoid getting an infection

You can ask a pharmacist about:

  • using a mild steroid cream like hydrocortisone cream to ease bedbug bites (children under 10 and pregnant women should get advice from a doctor before using hydrocortisone cream)
  • antihistamines – these may help if the bites are very itchy and you’re unable to sleep

Non-urgent advice: See a GP if:

  • the bites are still very painful, swollen or itchy after trying treatments from a pharmacist
  • the redness around the bites is spreading

You may have an infection and need treatment with antibiotics.

Coronavirus update: how to contact a GP

It’s still important to get help from a GP if you need it. To contact your GP surgery:

  • visit their website
  • use the NHS App
  • call them

How to get rid of bedbugs

contact your local council or pest control service – it’s unlikely you’ll be able to get rid of bedbugs yourself because they can be resistant to some insecticides

wash affected bedding and clothing – use a hot wash (60C) or tumble dry on a hot setting for at least 30 minutes

put affected clothing and bedding in a plastic bag and put it in the freezer (-16C) for 4 days (alternative to hot washing)

clean and vacuum regularly – bedbugs are found in both clean and dirty places, but regular cleaning will help you spot them early

do not keep clutter around your bed

do not bring secondhand furniture indoors without carefully checking it first

do not take luggage or clothing indoors without checking it carefully if you have come from somewhere where you know there were bedbugs

Page last reviewed: 21 January 2019
Next review due: 21 January 2022

How to Identify Bed Bug Bites—and How to Treat Them

Wake up with reddish welts or itchy skin? The culprit may be a bed bug hiding under your bed. These are the signs a dermatologist and entomologist look for.

Changlu Wang/Courtesy Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station

Unfortunately, a bed bug bite has no telltale sign, according to a review published in theAmerican Society for Microbiology. The reaction to bites varies tremendously from one person to the next. Some people will have no reaction or just minor itching and mosquito-like bumps in one area; others will get dramatic red raised welts all over. “It depends on the number of feeding bugs on the body, how long the person has been suffering bites, and also where the bites are located,” says Jody Green, PhD, an urban entomologist at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Five stages of post-bed bug bites

If you have evidence of bed bug bites on your skin, it’s due to your body’s allergic response, according to the U.S. Armed Forces’ 2019 Pest Management Board: Technical Guide #44. That response can take a few different forms: little to no reaction; an immediate reaction—often a red spot with minor discomfort; a delayed reaction in which red weals turn up within 14 days that trigger intense itching that can last two to five days; or, unfairly, a combination of immediate and delayed reactions. This makes it tough to know what’s gnawing on you without the help of an entomologist or dermatologist. Although this guide to bug bites may help.

Familiar signs of bed bug bites

While there is no exact way to tell what bug bit you, dermatologist A. Yasmine Kirkorian, MD, an assistant professor of Dermatology & Pediatrics, Children’s National Health System, says there are some patterns doctors look for: “Bed bugs typically bite several times in a row so people may notice several red itchy bumps grouped closely together, a pattern sometimes called ‘breakfast, lunch, and dinner,’” she explains. “They can occur anywhere on the body; bed bug bites on the face may cause intense swelling including of the eyelid.” A small study found that 72 percent of people who were bitten by bed bugs had itchy red welts, 50 percent had redness or discoloration, and 28 percent had itching with no welts. Call your doc or dermatologist and look for these signs of bed bugs in your house.

It can’t be bed bug bites

Let’s say you are sleeping in the same bed as your partner and your partner wakes up with bites but you don’t. Must not be bed bugs, right? Sadly, it still could be. “The most challenging thing about bed bug bites is that there is are people who do not react to bed bug bites, so they have no adverse skin responses and have no idea that they are being fed upon while they are sleeping,” says Green. One survey found that nearly one in three people had no reaction to bed bug bites. When the researchers broke out reactions by age, they found that 42 percent of people over 65 had no reaction. Bites or no bites, this is how bed bugs could get in your bedroom.

Bed bug bite treatment

People who do react to bed bugs often have intense itching. “Once a patient has been bitten, it is difficult to eradicate the itching. Over-the-counter anti-itch creams that contain one percent pramoxine can help,” says Dr. Kirkorian. Try Aveeno with pramoxine and calamine. Oral antihistamines such as Zyrtec and Benadryl may be effective too, says Dr. Kirkorian. But if your itching persists, your dermatologist or doctor might prescribe topical steroids such as triamcinolone and fluocinonide.

Just thinking about bed bugs can wreck your sleep, as well. Talk to your doctor if you start suffering from insomnia. “A sedating antihistamine such as Benadryl could be safe to use,” says Dr. Kirkorian.

Home remedies for bed bug bites

Before you commit to natural bed bug treatment, remember to practice good hygiene and caution, advises Larry Bishop, MD, a dermatologist with Health First Medical Group: Be sure to wash the area with soap and water first to reduce the risk of infection; if the area appears irritated or develops a rash, stop using the treatment and see a doctor. For remedies, Dr. Bishop suggests trying peppermint oil: “It works by two mechanisms—the peppermint oil is a vasoconstrictor (blood vessel constrictor), which lessens the pain and irritation from bed bug bites. Additionally, the peppermint works as a soothing agent by gently stimulating the nerves around the bite.” Try adding a few drops to a warm bath; if you want to apply it to the bites, dilute it first with an oil such as coconut, jojoba or olive.

Lemon balm is another favorite for bug bites. Crush or roll the leaves with your fingers to release the juice, apply it to the bites, and wrap with a bandage. “It works by having soothing properties and antibacterial properties,” Dr. Bishop says. Finally, there’s household ammonia—research suggests that it can help with itchy bites. It may not smell great, says Dr. Bishop, but if you put a little on a cotton ball and dab it on the area right away, it can help. “It works by neutralizing the proteins that are in the saliva of the bed bugs.” The saliva is what produces the allergic reaction in some people, and the quicker you neutralize it, the better.

When to see the doctor

Your bed bug bites will generally clear up on their own, but if you itch them the scratching can lead to secondary infections. “The initial bite may be a portal for bacteria to enter the skin. If a patient develops a worsening red bump, pus drainage, a fever, or other signs of systemic illness, they should seek urgent medical attention,” advises Dr. Kirkorian. Then, find out how to get rid of bed bugs.

How to Treat Bed Bug Bites: Home Remedies for Relief

If you go to sleep perfectly healthy and fine but find yourself waking up with tiny, red and swollen bites or patches of skin covered with angry red spots, your mattress may be infested with bedbugs.

Bed bugs are tiny parasites that often infest mattresses. They feed exclusively on blood and are most active at night when they emerge to feed on their hosts.

Apart from the bed, these pests can be found in cracks and crevices in your house; in your sheets; and behind furniture, headboards, picture frames and electrical outlet plates.

There has been a return in the number of bed bug infestations globally over the recent years with increased numbers of infestations reported for America, Asia, Europe, Australia, and Africa. (1)

Bed bug bites often cause the skin to become red and inflamed

Bed bugs are notoriously fast breeders, with the females laying up to five eggs per day. As the juvenile bugs grow into adults, they shed their skin, which is a highly visible sign indicating a bed bug infestation. Fully grown adult bed bugs are roughly the size of apple seeds.

Their bites often cause the skin to become red and inflamed. They can also be quite painful and itch like crazy. Resist the urge to scratch and irritate these sites, as doing so can lead to secondary bacterial infections.

The other health impacts of bed bug infections include cost and safety. Hospitals have closed down due to infestations which lead to lack of provision of healthcare services. Also, people may end up using hazardous ways out of desperation to get rid of bed bugs. Other health impacts may include social and mental health issues resulting from having bed bug infestations.

Natural Ways to get Relief from Bed Bug Bites

Here are 10 incredibly easy methods and home remedies to treat bed bug bites at home.

Method 1: Ice

Applying an ice pack is one of the simplest and most effective ways to manage bed bug bites. Ice helps numb the site, providing relief from pain. It is also highly effective at reducing inflammation and soothing the red, swollen skin to prevent itching.

Single-Step Treatment: Apply an ice pack on the bites

You can reapply the ice pack throughout the day as needed to relieve pain and itching.

Method 2: Cinnamon

Cinnamon has potent antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties that make it a highly effective remedy for treating insect bites, especially bed bug bites.

The ground spice can be made into a paste that acts as a highly effective Band-Aid, sealing the bitten areas, preventing infection and helping to heal the inflamed skin.

Single-Step Treatment: Apply a paste of cinnamon powder & water

At the end of the day, the bed bug bites will be drastically reduced. If needed, you can apply the cinnamon paste again the next day to completely heal the bites.

Method 3: Calamine Lotion

Calamine lotion is another incredibly effective remedy to treat bed bug bites. It acts as a skin protector; reduces pain, redness, and inflammation; and has a cooling or soothing effect on the inflamed skin.

Another major advantage of calamine lotion is that it also prevents itching. In fact, calamine is prescribed to chicken pox patients to help them control the urge to scratch their sores.

Zinc oxide is the active ingredient in calamine lotion and is also used in several antiseptic ointments to both heal and treat rashes. You can also use calamine lotion to get rid of mosquito bites.

Single-Step Treatment: Apply a thick coat of calamine lotion on the bitten areas

Reapply the lotion throughout the day as needed to control the pain, swelling, and irritation.

Method 4: Baking Soda

Baking soda is alkaline in nature and can be used to neutralize the acidic chemicals contained in insect bites. It’s also good for bed bug and chigger bites, due to its anti-inflammatory properties that help reduce the redness and swelling.

Single-step treatment: Apply a paste of baking soda and water

If you do not get the desired results, you can reapply the baking soda paste after 45 minutes.

Method 5: Rubbing Alcohol (Repellent)

Isopropyl rubbing alcohol can be used successfully to repel bed bugs and avoid getting new bites.

Single-Step Treatment: Apply rubbing alcohol to prevent new bed bug bites

Repeat as needed to get rid of bed bugs and avoid getting bitten by these parasitic pests.

Method 6: Aloe Vera

Single-Step Treatment: Apply aloe vera gel to soothe the bitten areas

Keep reapplying the gel throughout the day as needed to soothe the irritated skin.

Method 7: Apple Cider Vinegar

Raw, unfiltered apple cider vinegar has powerful antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties that make it a wonder remedy capable of treating a wide variety of diseases and conditions.

You can apply it on the insect bites to get rid of the redness and inflammation. It also helps prevent bites from becoming infected and promotes faster healing.

Single-Step Treatment: Apply raw, unfiltered apple cider vinegar on the bites

If you do not find complete relief, you can apply the apple cider vinegar again after 5 to 7 hours.

Method 8: Toothpaste

White toothpaste is the best when it comes to treating bed bug bites. It acts as an astringent and has a cooling effect on your skin. You can also use toothpaste to treat minor burns.

Preferably use a peppermint flavored toothpaste as its menthol component acts as an anesthetic, numbing the pain from the bug bites while also reducing the swelling and itchiness.

Single-Step Treatment: Apply toothpaste on the bites

You can also leave the toothpaste on the affected areas until it dries completely. Doing so will provide longer relief from the swelling and itching.

Method 9: Warm Spoon

Another effective way to reduce the swelling from bed bug bites is by applying a warm compress to reduce the sting, redness, and inflammation.

One simple trick to prepare a warm compress is to heat it with hot water instead of directly over a cooking flame. This not only reduces the chances of accidental burns but also makes it much easier to reheat for repeated application.

Single-Step Treatment: Apply a warm compress on the bite

You can repeat the process several times a day until you find relief.

Method 10: Witch Hazel

Witch hazel acts as a natural astringent and also has anti-inflammatory properties that work to soothe irritated skin, especially insect bites. You can also apply witch hazel to get rid of varicose veins without surgery.

You can apply witch hazel extract topically on your skin to get relief from irritation caused by bed bug bites. You can also make a DIY repellent spray with it.

# Treat the Bites

Single-Step Treatment: Apply witch hazel extract directly on the bites

Repeat application as needed until you get relief.

# Prepare Bed Bug DIY Repellent Spray

Things you’ll need:

  • Witch hazel extract – 2 tablespoons
  • Cinnamon essential oil – 3 or 4 drops
  • Water – 1 cup
Single-Step Treatment: Combine witch hazel and cinnamon oil in a spray bottle

You can also spray the prepared solution all over your bedspread to ward off bed bugs and enjoy a good night’s sleep.

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